Search Field Guide
Advanced Search
MT Gov Logo
Montana Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Dwarf Birch - Betula glandulosa
Other Names:  Betula nana s.l.

Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S3S4

Agency Status
MNPS Threat Rank:
C-value: 8

External Links

General Description
Shrub to 2 m high with brown to black bark. Twigs short-pubescent, densely glandular. Leaf blades 1–2 cm long, glandular, paler beneath. Female catkins 5–20 mm long. Fruit with wings 1/4–1/2 as wide as nutlet (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Diagnostic Characteristics
Very similar to Betula pumila and often difficult to separate from it. Hybrids between the two are not uncommon. Some authors place this entity within a broad concept of B. nana (e.g., Flora North America).

Species Range
Montana Range


Range Comments
Northern Canada, Alaska, Siberia, northern Europe, Greenland. Rare in Que, Lab, NS (syn. B. michauxii).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 343

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density



(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)

  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • Barge, E.G. 2015. Systematics of Lactarius in the Rocky Mountain alpine zone. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 223 p.
    • Barge, E.G., C. Cripps and T.W. Osmundson. 2016. Systematics of the ectomycorrhizal genus Lactarius in the Rocky Mountain alpine zone. Mycologia, 108(2), 2016, pp. 414–440. DOI: 10.3852/15-177
    • Cripps, C.L., U. Eberhardt, N. Schutz, H.J. Beker, V.S. Evenson, and E. Horak. 2019. The genus Hebeloma in the Rocky Mountain alpine zone. MycoKeys 46: 1-54.
    • Jones, W. W. 1901. Preliminary flora of Gallatin County. M.S. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State College. 78 pp.
    • Osmundson, T.W. 2003. Systematics of Rocky Mountain alpine Laccaria (basidiomycota, agaricales, tricholomataceae) and ecology of Beartooth Plateau alpine macromycetes. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 188 p.
    • Tyers, D.B. 2003. Winter ecology of moose on the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 308 p.
    • Williams, K.L. 2012. Classification of the grasslands, shrublands, woodlands, forests and alpine vegetation associations of the Custer National Forest portion of the Beartooth Mountains in southcentral Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 376 p.
  • Web Search Engines for Articles on "Dwarf Birch"
Login Logout
Citation for data on this website:
Dwarf Birch — Betula glandulosa.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from