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Montana Field Guides

Big Sagebrush - Artemisia tridentata

Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S5

Agency Status
USFWS:
USFS:
BLM:
MNPS Threat Rank:
C-value: 3

External Links






 
General Description
Shrubs 30–250 cm high, not sprouting following fire. Herbage densely tomentose, aromatic. Leaves cuneate to oblong, 1–4 cm long, 3-lobed distally. Inflorescence paniculate, inconspicuously linear-bracteate. Involucre turbinate, 2.5–4 mm high; outer phyllaries green, tomentose; the inner tan; receptacle glabrous. Disk flowers perfect, 3 to 8, glandular; corolla 1.5–2 mm long. Achenes glandular, sometimes villous, ca. 1 mm long (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

We have subspecies tridentata, wyomingensis Beetle & A.M. Young, vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle, and (according to Lesica [2012]) spiciformis (Osterh.) Kartesz & Gandhi.

Species Range
Montana Range

Year-round
 


Range Comments
BC, AB south to CA, AZ, NM and NE (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 2151

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

 

(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)



Habitat
Usually deep soils of sagebrush steppe, steep open slopes; plains, valleys to subalpine (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

References
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
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    • Allred, B. W. 1941. Grasshoppers and their effect on sagebrush on the Little Powder River in Wyoming and Montana. Ecology 22:387-392.
    • Anderson, N.L. 1951. Field studies on the biology of range grasshoppers of southeastern Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 96 p.
    • Anderson, N.L. 1962. Grasshopper-vegetation relationships on Montana grasslands. Ph.D Dissertation. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 73 p.
    • Booth, W.E. 1947. The effect of grass competition on the growth and reproduction of big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata. Proceedings Montana Academy of Science 7:23-25.
    • Egan, J.L. 1957. Some relationships between mule deer and alfalfa production in Powder River County, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 34 p.
    • Eng, R.L. 1952. A two-summer study of the effects on bird populations of chlordane bait and aldrin spray as used forgrasshopper control. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 27 p.
    • Feist, F.G. 1968. Breeding bird populations in relation to proposed sagebrush control in central Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 41 p.
    • Foster, J.W. 1977. Impact of off-road vehicle traffic on soils and vegetation on rangeland in southeastern Montana and photographic monitoring of the effects. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 168 p.
    • Hildebrand, B. D. 1979. Habitat requirements of molting Canada Geese at Lima Reservoir, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 79 p.
    • Hodgson, J.R. 1970. Ecological distribution of Microtus montanus and Microtus pennsylvanicus in an area of geographic sympatry in southwestern Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 65 p.
    • Holeckek, J.L. 1976. Initial effects of different species treatments and fertilizer rates on a mine spoils rehabilitation. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 91 p.
    • Husby, P.O. 1982. Effects of grazing on vegetation in the Artemisia tridentata-Festuca idahoensis habitat type. M.S. thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman. 76 pp.
    • Husby, P.O. 1982. Effects of grazing on vegetation in the Artemisia tridentata-Festuca idahoensis habitat type. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 76 p.
    • Johnson, C.M. 2002. Effects of black-tailed prairie dogs on the mixed-grass prairie in Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 89 p.
    • Johnson, J.R. 1966. The effects of some environmental influences on big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nutt., reinvasion. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 100 pp.
    • Johnson, T. W. 1982. An analysis of pack and saddle stock grazing areas in the Bob Marshall Wilderness. M.Sc.Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 105 p.
    • Joslin, G.J. 1975. Behavior and environmental selection by Elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) during surrmer and fall in the First and Second Yellow Mule drainages, Madison County, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University, Bozeman. 65 p.
    • Klarich, D., and T. Weaver. 1973. Effects of volatile substances of Artemisia tridentata on seed germination. Montana Acad. Sci. Proc. 33:31-36.
    • Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
    • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.
    • Lonner, T.N. 1972. Age distributions and some age relationships of key browse plants on big game ranges in Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 79 p.
    • Lovaas, A.L. 1957. Mule deer food habits and range use in the Little Belt Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 43 p.
    • Mackie, R.J. 1965. Range ecology and relationships of mule deer, elk, and cattle in the Missouri River breaks. Ph.D Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 229 p.
    • Martin, N.S. 1965. Effects of chemical control of sagebrush on the occurrence of sage grouse in southwestern Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 38 p.
    • Martin, P.R. 1973. Ecology of skunkbrush sumac (Rhus trilobata Nutt.) in Montana with special reference to use by mule deer. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 97 p.
    • Martin, S.A. 1985. Ecology of the Rock Creek bighorn sheep herd, Beartooth Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 152 p.
    • Martinka, R.R. 1970. Structural characteristics and ecological relationships of male blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus (Say)) territories in southwestern Montana. Ph.D Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 73 p.
    • McArthur, E. D. and B. L. Welch. 1982. Growth rate differences among big sagebrush [Artemisia tridentata] accessions and subspecies. Journal of Range Management 35: 396-401.
    • McCarthy, J.J. 1973. Response of nesting Canada geese (Branta canadensis) to islands in stockdams in northcentral Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 36 p.
    • Messer, Mathew Adam. 2003. Identifying large herbivore distribution mechanisms through application of fine-scale snow modeling. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 46 p.
    • Miller, M.G. 1980. The influence of habitat features on waterfowl productivity on stock reservoirs in south Valley County, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 43 p.
    • Morris, M. S., and C. Passe. 1958. An ecological study of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) in western Montana. Montana State University, School of For., Missoula. 11 pp.
    • Morton, M.A. 1976. Nutritional values of major mule deer winter forage species in the Bridger Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 105 p.
    • Mundinger, J.G. 1975. The influence of rest-rotation grazing management on waterfowl production on stock-water reservoirs in Phillips County, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 100 p.
    • Nelson, G.P. 1986. Responses of elk to a 500 kV transmission line on the North Boulder winter range, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 60 p.
    • Nielsen, L.S. 1978. The effects of rest-rotation grazing on the distribution of Sharp-tailed Grouse. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 52 p.
    • Northrup, R.D. 1991. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat use during fall and winter on the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 54 p.
    • Nyberg, H.E. 1980. Distribution, movements and habitat use of mule deer associated with the Brackett Creek winter range, Bridger Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 106 p.
    • O'Connor, K.S. 1987. Ecology of white-tailed deer and mule deer in agricultural lands in the Gallatin Valley, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 67 p.
    • Pac, D.F. 1976. Distribution, movements, and habitat use during spring, summer, and fall by mule deer associated with Armstrong winter range, Bridger Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 121 p.
    • Pallister, G.L. 1974. The seasonal distribution and range use of bighorn sheep in the Beartooth Mountains, with special reference to the West Rosebud and Stillwater herds. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 67 p.
    • Pase, C.P. 1950. An ecological study of sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata nutt., in western Montana, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana. M.S. thesis.
    • Payne, G.F. 1957. Some germination studies of Artemisia tridentata. Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Science 17:41-42.
    • Perryman, B. L., A. M. Maier, A. L. Hild and R. A. Olson. 2001. Demographic characteristics of 3 Artemisia tridentata Nutt. subspecies. Journal of Range Management 54: 166-170.
    • Peterson, J. G. 1984. The value of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) as a forage source for mule deer. Pp. 72-85 in A. Dood, comp., Proc. Mont. Chapt., The Wildl. Soc., Butte. 85 pp.
    • Peterson, J.G. 1969. The food habits and summer distribution of juvenile sage grouse in central Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 39 p.
    • Rens, E.N. 2003. Geographical analysis of the distribution and spread of invasive plants in the Gardiner Basin, MT. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 100 p.
    • Rosgaard, A.I., Jr. 1981. Ecology of the mule deer associated with the Brackett Creek winter range in the Bridger Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 76 p.
    • Rouse, R.A. 1957. Elk food habits range use and movements, Gravelly Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 29 p.
    • Selting, J.P. 1994. Seasonal use of agricultural lands by Mule Deer, White-Tailed Deer, and Pronghorn Antelope in Carter County, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 66 p.
    • Smith, D. W. 1969. A preliminary classification and characterization of big sage, Artemisia tridentata Nutt. , communities in central Montana. M.S. thesis, Montana State University, Bozeman. 68 pp.
    • Steerey, W. F. 1979. Distribution, range use and population characteristics of Mule Deer associated with the Schafer Creek winter range, Bridger Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 119 p.
    • Trout, R.G. 1978. Small mammal abundance and distribution in the Missouri River Breaks, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 64 p.
    • Watts, M. J., and C. L. Wambolt. 1989. Economic evaluation of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) control methods. Weed Tech. 3:640-645.
    • Weaver, T. and D. Klarich. 1977. Allelopathic effects of volatile substances from Artemisia tridentata. American Midland Naturalist 97:508-512.
    • Weaver, T., and D. Klarich. 1976. Toxic effects of volatile exudates from Artemisia tridentata Nutt. on soil microbes. Montana Acad. Sci. Proc. 36:80-85.
    • Young, J. A., and R. A. Evans. 1989. Dispersal and germination of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) seeds. Weed Science 37: 201-206.
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Big Sagebrush — Artemisia tridentata.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from