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A Jaffueliobryum Moss - Jaffueliobryum raui

Native Species

Global Rank: G4?
State Rank: SNR

Agency Status
MNPS Threat Rank:

External Links

General Description
Plants: Acrocarpous, growing in small crowded carpets or cushions, green with yellow tones to a deep olive green, with a whitish or greyish cast from hyaline awns. Stems 0.5-2 cm in height, the branches few (FNA 2007).

Leaves: Closely spaced, overlapping and lying close to the stem near the stem apex (FNA 2007), sometimes spreading a little when dry (Crum & Anderson et al., 1981), curved back and downward, and sometimes spreading to 90 degrees in the lower part of the stem, 0.6-1.2 mm in length (minus the awn), strongly cupped (Flowers 1973), egg-shaped with the broad end either proximal or distal, tapering to an acumen or acute leaf tip (FNA 2007), the leaves progressively longer toward the stem apex; awn nearly smooth to finely saw-toothed, longer in the upper leaves (Crum & Anderson et al., 1981), 0.3-1.4 mm in length (FNA 2007); margins flat, smooth, or sometimes a little toothed above (Flowers 1973); costa ending in the awn’s base (Crum & Anderson et al., 1981), in X-section convex on the dorsal leaf face, grooved ventrally (Flowers 1973).

Leaf Cells: Lamina 1 cell-layer thick above, seldom with ridges of 2 layers above; upper and medial laminal cells about as broad as long, or somewhat elliptic or oddly diamond-shaped, the medial cells a little shorter than the upper cells (FNA 2007); lower laminal cells green, quadrangular, becoming nearly square near the leaf edge (Crum & Anderson et al., 1981); margins 1 cell-layer thick (Flowers 1973); costa in X-section conspicuously folded longitudinally (FNA 2007).

Fruit ripens in spring and summer, influenced by the elevation (FNA 2007).

Diagnostic Characteristics
J. raui tends to occur in cooler, slightly moister areas than its close relative, J. wrightii, more often inhabiting higher elevations and not extending as far south. J. wrightii has a costa flat ventrally in X-section rather than distinctly longitudinally folded, and the lower leaves usually lie flat against the stem rather than spreading (FNA 2007).

Range Comments
North American Range

AB and MT, CA e to CO and NM, also SD s to TX, MN, IA and WI (FNA 2007). Known in Montana from Carter, Fallon, Park, and Roosevelt Counties (Elliott & Pipp, 2016).

Reproductive Characteristics
Autoicous. Perichaetial awns sometimes reaching 1.7 mm in length, the lamina to 1.5 mm in length. Seta short, ca 0.5 mm tall, leaving the capsule hidden amongst the bracts. Capsule 0.8-1 mm in length, ochre, becoming russet over time; operculum ca 0.5 mm (FNA 2007); peristome pale brown (Crum & Anderson et al., 1981). Calyptra bell-shaped, its base occasionally lobed or a little torn-looking, shielding ca 3/4 of the capsule (FNA 2007), stramineous with a red apex (Flowers 1973).

  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Crum, H.A. and L.E. Anderson. 1981. Mosses of Eastern North America. 2 volumes. Columbia University Press, New York. 1328 pp.
    • Elliott, J.C. and A.K. Pipp. 2018. A Checklist of Montana Mosses (1880-2018). December 20th. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 73 pp.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2007. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 27. Bryophytes: Mosses, Part 1. Oxford University Press, Inc., NY. xxi + 713 pp.
    • Flowers, S. 1973. Mosses: Utah and the West. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah. 567 p.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • Lawton, E. 1971. Keys for the Identification of the Mosses on the Pacific Northwest. Reprinted from 'Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest'. Published as Supplement No. 2 of the Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan. 66 pp.
    • Lawton, E. 1971. Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Japan: Yamabuki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 362 pages plus appendices.
    • Malcolm, B., N. Malcolm, J. Shevock, and D. Norris. 2009. California Mosses. Nelson, New Zealand: Micro-Optics Press. 430 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
A Jaffueliobryum Moss — Jaffueliobryum raui.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from