Spiny Dry Rock Moss - Grimmia laevigata
Spiny Black Rock Moss
Plant: Hoary, dense tufts. Dark green to dark brown. Stems 0.5-2.0 cm tall.
Leaf: Oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 1.5-3.0 x 0.4-0.6 mm. Awn 0.3-2.0 long, broadly attached and decurrent. Some leaves without awns; at least the upper leaves are awned and straight. Both margins plane. Costa ends before apex, is weak, and is wide at leaf base.
Leaf Cells: Basal laminal cells near costa are elongate, straight, thick-walled laterally, and green. Basal laminal cells near margin are oblate to quadrate, straight, thick-walled transversely, thin-walled laterally, and green. Median laminal cells are quadrate to rounded, straight, and thick-walled. X-S: distal laminal cells are 2-layered, thick-walled, and quadrate. Costa X-S: distally a semi-circular in outline (keeled).
Canada: BC; USA: AL, AZ, AR, CA, CO, DC, FL, GA, ID, IL, IN, IA, KS, KY, MD, MA, MN, MO, MT, NE, NV, NJ, NM, NY, NC, OK, OR, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VT, VA, WA, WY; Mexico; South America; Eurasia; Africa; Indian Ocean Islands; Australia (FNA 2007). In Montana: Flathead, Jefferson, Lewis and Clark, and Sanders Counties (Elliott 2016).
Exposed acidic granite, sandstone, and basalt rock. Humid to dry areas in the plains and montane zones, but rarely in the alpine. Moderate to high elevations (650 – 9200 feet). It occurs in the Rocky Mountains, but is not common and is mostly present at lower elevations on the east slopes.
Dioicous. Seta is 1.5-3.0 mm tall, straight, and centrally attached to capsule. Capsules are occasionally found, exserted, brown, oblong-ovoid to cylindric.
Gemmae absent on leaves.
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Elliott, J.C. and A.K. Pipp. 2018. A Checklist of Montana Mosses (1880-2018). December 20th. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 73 pp.
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2007. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 27. Bryophytes: Mosses, Part 1. Oxford University Press, Inc., NY. xxi + 713 pp.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
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- Lawton, E. 1971. Keys for the Identification of the Mosses on the Pacific Northwest. Reprinted from 'Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest'. Published as Supplement No. 2 of the Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan. 66 pp.
- Lawton, E. 1971. Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Japan: Yamabuki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 362 pages plus appendices.