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Golden Bentleaf Moss - Campyliadelphus chrysophyllus
Other Names:  Campylium chrysophyllum


Global Rank: G5
State Rank: SNR

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General Description
Plants: Pleurocarpous. Growing in open, interwoven mats (Lawton 1971), green, sometimes with added yellow tones, to brown (FNA 2014). Stems prostrate (Lawton 1971), erratically branched or pinnate; central strand thin; paraphyllia and hyalodermis not present; rhizoids or their initials arising from the stem or from the dorsal side of the costa at the leaf attachment, with few to many branches; axillary hairs with 1-4 transparent cells terminally (FNA 2014).

Leaves: Stem leaves lax to somewhat densely spaced, typically spreading to ca 90 degrees (Lawton 1971), sometimes nearly upright (FNA 2014), 0.7-1.5 mm in length, 0.2-0.5 mm in width (Lawton 1971), sometimes sickle-shaped, deltoid with soft corners to egg-shaped or widely so, cupped, not longitudinally folded, steadily tapering or abruptly narrowed to the apex, forming a long acumen (FNA 2014), the acumen usually either flat or involute (Lawton 1971), occasionally curved back and down, longitudinally grooved; base extending down the stem (FNA 2014); margins smooth, occasionally finely saw-toothed below (Lawton 1971), unbordered; costa typically single and mostly over half the leaf length (occasionally plants will have a few leaves with shorter double costae), without a dorsal spine (FNA 2014).

Leaf Cells: Alar cells numerous, somewhat small, the alar area ranging from square to deltoid (long crosswise), extending from the leaf edge to a little more or less than halfway to the costa attachment (occasionally to 80% of the distance), not clearly demarcated; margins 1 cell-layer thick; basal cells short, quadrangular to very thin; medial laminal cells quadrangular or very thin; upper cells smooth (FNA 2014).

Range Comments
North American Range

Canada: YT, NT, and BC to NL and NS; USA: OR, AZ, MT s to NM, nearly all central and eastern states; Mexico (FNA 2014). Known in Montana from Carter, Choteau, Fallon, Fergus, Flathead, Glacier, Lake, Lewis and Clark, Meagher, and Missoula Counties (Elliott 2016).


Habitat
Humus, tree bottoms and bare tree roots (Lawton 1971), soil and rock high in calcium or other minerals, the substrates wet or periodically wet; almost always below tree line (FNA 2016).

Reproductive Characteristics
Dioicous. Interior perichaetial bracts longitudinally pleated (unlike the stem leaves). Seta to 35 mm tall (Lawton 1971), red. Capsule 2-3 mm in length (Crum & Anderson et al. 1981), bowed, level; exostome teeth with edges toothed or a little toothed above (FNA 2014), ochre; endostome segments without openings, the cilia grouped in 2’s or 3’s (Crum & Anderson et al. 1981), knobby or partly transversely ridged (FNA 2014).

References
  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Crum, H.A. and L.E. Anderson. 1981. Mosses of Eastern North America. 2 volumes. Columbia University Press, New York. 1328 pp.
    • Elliott, J. and A. Pipp. 2016 (forthcoming). Checklist of Montana Mosses. Revised 2016. Prepared by the Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 90 pp.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2014. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 28. Bryophytes: Mosses, Part 2. Oxford University Press, Inc., NY. xxi + 702 pp.
    • Lawton, E. 1971. Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Japan: Yamabuki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 362 pages plus appendices.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
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    • Flowers, S. 1973. Mosses: Utah and the West. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah. 567 p.
    • Lawton, E. 1971. Keys for the Identification of the Mosses on the Pacific Northwest. Reprinted from 'Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest'. Published as Supplement No. 2 of the Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan. 66 pp.
    • Malcolm, B., N. Malcolm, J. Shevock, and D. Norris. 2009. California Mosses. Nelson, New Zealand: Micro-Optics Press. 430 pp.
    • Smith, A.J.E. 1980. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 705 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
Golden Bentleaf Moss — Campyliadelphus chrysophyllus.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from