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Montana Field Guides

An Apple Moss - Bartramia stricta

Undetermined Origin

Global Rank: GU
State Rank: SNA
* (see State Rank Reason below)

Agency Status
MNPS Threat Rank:

External Links

State Rank Reason (see State Rank above)
The Distribution Confidence in BIOTICS is marked "Reported, but false" without any notation as to how this is known. Specimen reported at MONTU. FNA 2014 does not show this species in Montana.
  • Details on Status Ranking and Review
    An Apple Moss (Bartramia stricta) Conservation Status Review
    Review Date =
General Description
Plants: Acrocarpous (Vitt 1988). Growing in erect, crowded clumps, green with yellow tones (Lawton 1971), green tinged with brown to “bloomed” with white (FNA 2014). Stems terete in X-section, 10-30 mm in length (FNA 2014), with abundant, papillose rhizoids near the base (Lawton 1971).

Leaves: Rigidly imbricate when dry, spreading some when wet, slim and lance-shaped, lacking shoulders, not enveloping the stem at the base (FNA 2014), tapering evenly from base to tip (Lawton 1971); margins curved back and down proximally and up to the slender, narrowing point, singly and finely toothed above; apex with a slender, bristle point; costa extending beyond the apex (creating the bristle), the dorsal surface pronounced and coarse above (FNA 2014).

Leaf Cells: Lamina 2-layered above; medial and upper leaf cells rectangular, very papillose (mammilose in X-section) (Lawton 1971); lower laminal cells fine-walled, long and rectangular to linear (FNA 2014), although short at the stem attachment, clear, smooth or with minute papillae; margins with 1 or 2 layers of cells (Lawton 1971).

Fruit ripens from mid-winter to summer (FNA 2014).

Diagnostic Characteristics
The imbricate leaves lacking shoulders and the regular cell pattern from the bottom to the acumen help in identification of plants in a vegetative state (FNA 2014).

Range Comments
North American Range

Seldom occurring in CA, NM, and TX, with one occurrence in BC (FNA 2014). Known in Montana from Glacier County (Elliott 2016).

Known from Europe disjunctly and also in Australia (Belland 1998). Restricted to low elevation, mediterranean-like climates. According to Rene Belland's 1998 species status report for COSEWIC, in Canada, this species is known only from one site in Vancouver Island.

Soil over rock at high elevations (Elliott 2016). Elevation: 30-7550 feet (FNA 2014).

Reproductive Characteristics
Monoicous, with female and male structures located in the same inflorescence. Seta 10-15 mm in length. Capsule upright, nearly spherical to egg-shaped, radially balanced, 1.4-2 mm in length; peristome single; exostome with papillae arranged in fine longitudinal lines; endostome lacking (FNA 2014).

  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Belland, R. J. 1998. The Rare Mosses of Canada - A Review and First Listing. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 91 pp.
    • Elliott, J. and A. Pipp. 2016 (forthcoming). Checklist of Montana Mosses. Revised 2016. Prepared by the Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 90 pp.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2014. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 28. Bryophytes: Mosses, Part 2. Oxford University Press, Inc., NY. xxi + 702 pp.
    • Lawton, E. 1971. Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Japan: Yamabuki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 362 pages plus appendices.
    • Vitt, D. J. Marsh, and R. Bovey. 1988. Mosses, Lichens & Ferns of Northwest North America. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 296 p.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • Lawton, E. 1971. Keys for the Identification of the Mosses on the Pacific Northwest. Reprinted from 'Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest'. Published as Supplement No. 2 of the Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory. Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan. 66 pp.
    • Malcolm, B., N. Malcolm, J. Shevock, and D. Norris. 2009. California Mosses. Nelson, New Zealand: Micro-Optics Press. 430 pp.
    • Smith, A.J.E. 1980. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 705 pp.
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Citation for data on this website:
An Apple Moss — Bartramia stricta.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from