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Montana Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

A Liverwort - Jungermannia rubra

Native Species

Global Rank: G2G4
State Rank: SNR

Agency Status
MNPS Threat Rank:

External Links

General Description
Plants: Leafy in form (also referred to as a “scale moss”) (Doyle 2006, Schofield 1985) usually with green shoots in moist protected habitats, or reddish in dry open areas, frequently growing in large groups (Doyle 2006). Rhizoids nearly transparent.

Leaves: Leaves alternate, not fused (Schofield 2002). Walls of marginal cells vary in thickness, but are usually somewhat thicker than those of the submarginal cells, trigones in median cells easily noticeable. Perianths beaked, red to purple (Doyle 2006).

Diagnostic Characteristics
Previous reports of J. gracillima for Montana are referrable here (Hong 2002).

Range Comments
Western part of North America (Doyle 2006).

Shaded or exposed hills and banks, usually on soil, occasionally on rocks; elevations up to 7000 feet, but mostly between sea level and 3600 feet (Doyle 2006).

Reproductive Characteristics
Dioicous (Doyle 2006). Well-developed sporangia are deep brown or black.

As with other species in this genus, broken-off pieces from the fragile plants serve as disapores for vegetative reproduction (Schofield 2002).

  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Doyle, W.T. and R.E. Stotler. 2006. Contributions Toward a Bryoflora of California III. Keys and Annotated Species Catalogue for Liverworts and Hornworts. Madroño 53(2): 89-197.
    • Hong, W. S. 2002. "A Key to the Hepaticae of Montana". Northwest Science : Official Publication of the Northwest Scientific Association. 76: 271-285.
    • Schofield, W.B. 1985. Introduction to Bryology. Caldwell, NJ: Blackburn Press. 434 p.
    • Schofield, W.B., P. Drukker-Brammall, and M. Pacheco. 2002. Field Guide to Liverwort Genera of Pacific North America. Banff, AB: Global Forest Society in association with University of Washington Press. 228 p.
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Citation for data on this website:
A Liverwort — Jungermannia rubra.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from