Assiniboine Skipper - Hesperia assiniboia
Not all authorities have agreed on the taxonomic status of members in the Hesperia comma group, which includes H. assiniboia (Scott 1975d, 1986; Scott and Fisher 1998; Layberry et al. 1998; Oppler and Wright 1999; Guppy and Shepard 2001; Forister et al. 2004; Alcorn and Sheldon 2006). Some treat H. assiniboia as a subspecies of H. comma, others consider it a subspecies of H. colorado, and others treat it as a full species, currently the accepted status. Given past taxonomic uncertainty and instability, this account probably includes information pertaining to more than one species.
[From Ferris and Brown 1981; Scott 1986; Layberry et al. 1998; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001] Forewing 1.3-1.6 cm. Antennae relatively long, wing fringes long, white or pale. Uppersurface appears dark, with reduced tawny areas. Male stigma (scent patch) with black interior "felt." Undersurface of hindwing pale green or gray-green, postmedian chevron broken into 2-3 groups of pale-yellow spots (sometimes whitish, often small, sometimes absent).
One flight, mainly late June to early August in Saskatchewan (Scott 1986). Late June to early September (Layberry et al. 1998; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001). Mid-June to late September in North Dakota (McCabe and Post 1976), late July to late August in British Columbia (Guppy and Shepard 2001).
Best determined by a combination of the male stigma (bulb at antenna tip) with black interior "felt", undersurface of hindwing pale green or gray-green (not darker), postmedian chevron broken into 2-3 groups of pale-yellow spots (sometimes whitish, often small, sometimes absent), the chevron band not continuous.
West-central British Columbia east to central and southeastern Manitoba, south to southern Montana, North Dakota, northeastern South Dakota (Layberry et al. 1998; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001; Guppy and Shepard 2001). In Montana, reported from at least 17 counties in the eastern prairie region, as far west as Pondera County in the north, Sweet Grass county in the south (Kohler 1980; Standford and Opler 1993; FLMNH Lepidopterists' Society database), to at least 1650 m elevation. Mainly common to abundant (Glassberg 2001).
Non-migratory. Most probably move 100 m or less in suitable habitat (James and Nunnallee 2011).
Short-grass prairie, aspen parkland (Scott 1986; Layberry et al. 1998; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001). Habitat in Montana not described but probably similar.
Larval food plants are grasses, including Bouteloua, Hesperostipa (=Stipa), and Koeleria, possibly Carex and other grass species such as Andropogon and Bromus (Scott 1986, 1992, 2006; Layberry et al. 1998). Adults feed on flower nectar (including Achillea, Arctium, Berteroa, Campanula, Carduus, Centaurea, Chrysothamnus, Cichorium, Cirsium, Dipsacus, Erigeron, Eriogonum, Geranium, Grindelia, Gutierrezia, Helianthus, Heterotheca, Liatris, Machaeranthera, Medicago, Penstemon, Rudbeckia, Senecio, Solidago, Symphyotrichum, Viguiera) and mud (Scott 2014).
Limited information. Females lay eggs somewhat haphazardly on or near host plant mostly on underside of leaf. Eggs diapause (overwinter), with L1 instar well developed. Larval development to pupation may take up to 129 days in captivity, with possibly 6 instars. Larvae feed on host plant leaves, live in nests of rolled and silk-tied leaves, pupate in silken cocoon within leaf nest, adults eclose (emerge from pupae) in about 19-30 days (Scott 1975e, 1979, 1986, 1992, 2006; James and Nunnallee 2011). Males probably perch throughout the day on flats and hilltops near host plants, waiting for passing females (Scott 1975b, 1986; James and Nunnallee 2011).
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Acorn, J. and I. Sheldon. 2006. Butterflies of British Columbia. Edmonton, Alberta. Lone Pine Publishing. pp.360
- Ferris, C.D. and F.M. Brown (eds). 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountains. Univ. of Oklahoma Press. Norman. 442 pp.
- Forister, M.L., J.A. Fordyce, and A.M. Shapiro. 2004. Geological barriers and restricted gene flow in the Holarctic skipper Hesperia comma (Hesperiidae). Molecular Ecology 13:3489-3499.
- Glassberg, J. 2001. Butterflies through Binoculars: A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Western North America. Oxford University Press.
- Guppy, C.S. and J.H. Shepard. 2001. Butterflies of British Columbia: including western Alberta, southern Yukon, the Alaska Panhandle, Washington, northern Oregon, northern Idaho, northwestern Montana. UBC Press (Vancouver, BC) and Royal British Columbia Museum (Victoria, BC). 414 pp.
- James, D.G. and D. Nunnallee. 2011. Life histories of Cascadia butterflies. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press. 447 p.
- Kohler, S. 1980. Checklist of Montana Butterflies (Rhopalocera). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 34(1): 1-19.
- Layberry, R.A., P.W. Hall, and J.D. LaFontaine. 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press. 280 pp. + color plates.
- McCabe, T.L. and R.L. Post. 1976. North Dakota butterfly calendar (including possible strays). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 15:93-99.
- Opler, P.A. and A.B. Wright. 1999. A field guide to western butterflies. Second edition. Peterson Field Guides. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 540 pp.
- Scott, J.A. 1975b. Mate-locating behavior of western North American butterflies. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 14:1-40.
- Scott, J.A. 1975d. Clinal intergradation of Hesperia comma colorado (Hesperiidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 29:156-161.
- Scott, J.A. 1975e. Early stages of seven Colorado Hesperia (Hesperiidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 29:163-167.
- Scott, J.A. 1979. Hibernal diapause of North American Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 18(3): 171-200.
- Scott, J.A. 1986. The butterflies of North America: a natural history and field guide. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.
- Scott, J.A. 1992. Hostplant records for butterflies and skippers (mostly from Colorado) 1959-1992, with new life histories and notes on oviposition, immatures, and ecology. Papilio new series #6. 185 p.
- Scott, J.A. 2006. Butterfly hostplant records, 1992-2005, with a treatise on the evolution of Erynnis, and a note on new terminology for mate-locating behavior. Papilio new series #14. 74 p.
- Scott, J.A. 2014. Lepidoptera of North America 13. Flower visitation by Colorado butterflies (40,615 records) with a review of the literature on pollination of Colorado plants and butterfly attraction (Lepidoptera: Hersperioidea and Papilionoidea). Contributions of the C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthopod Diversity. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University. 190 p.
- Scott, J.A. and M.S. Fisher. 1998. New western North American butterflies. Papilio new series #11. 10 p.
- Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of western USA butterflies: including adjacent parts of Canada and Mexico. Unpubl. Report. Denver and Fort Collins, Colorado 275 pp.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View Online Publication
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- Allen, T.J., J.P. Brock, and J. Glassberg. 2005. Caterpillars in the field and garden: a field guide to the butterfly caterpillars of North America. Oxford University Press.
- Brock, J.P. and K. Kaufman. 2003. Kaufman Field Guide to Butterflies of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, NY 284 pp.
- Brown, F.M. 1957. Colorado Butterflies. Proceedings; Numbers Three through Seven. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver, Co.
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