Search Field Guide
Advanced Search
Montana Animal Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Plains Gartersnake - Thamnophis radix

Google for more images Google for web pages

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S4

Agency Status
USFWS:
USFS:
BLM:
FWP Conservation Tier: 3


 

External Links





 
General Description
Adults range from 16 to 42 inches in length. Background color above is olive, brown, or black. This snake has an orange or yellow dorsal stripe and two greenish-yellow stripes on each side (the latter located on the third and fourth scale rows above the belly scales). It typically has black vertical bars on the upper lips.

Diagnostic Characteristics
Other gartersnakes in Montana have the lateral yellow lines on the second and third scale rows above the belly scales.

General Distribution
Montana Range

Click the legend blocks above to view individual ranges.

Western Hemisphere Range

 


Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations: 1034

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

 

(Records associated with a range of dates are excluded from time charts)



Migration
Non-migratory.

Habitat
Plains Gartersnakes are found in nearly all habitats, but most commonly at lower elevations around water. Females give birth to 6 to 18 live young during summer. They eat a variety of vertebrates and invertebrates. Widely distributed over shortgrass prairie, but may be especially common near ponds and coulees.

Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
  • Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
    How Associations Were Made
    We associated the use and habitat quality (high, medium, or low) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
    1. Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2001, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
    2. Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species’ range and habitat requirements;
    3. Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point database associated with each ecological system;
    4. Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of “observations versus availability of habitat”.
    Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.  In general, species were associated as using an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.  However, species were not associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if point observations were associated with that system.  High, medium, and low habitat quality was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species in the literature.  The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignments of habitat quality.  If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact Bryce Maxell at bmaxell@mt.gov or (406) 444-3655.

    Suggested Uses and Limitations
    Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.  These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: http://mtnhp.org/requests/default.asp) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.  Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.  Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.  Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).  Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species’ known geographic range.

    Literature Cited
    • Adams, R.A.  2003.  Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation.  Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.  289 p.
    • Dobkin, D. S.  1992.  Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34.  Missoula, MT.
    • Foresman, K.R.  2001.  The wild mammals of Montana.  Special Publication No. 12.  Lawrence, KS: The American Society of Mammalogists.  278 p.
    • Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998.  Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates.  Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT.  1302 p.
    • Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young.  1999.  Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32.  72 p.
    • Maxell, B.A.  2000.  Management of Montana’s amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species.  Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1.  Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana.  161 p.
    • Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath.  2004.  Amphibians and reptiles of Montana.  Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.

Reproductive Characteristics
In CO, mate May-early June; parturition late July to September. Litter sizes 16 (2 to 21). In Saskatchewan may have greater than 1 year long reproductive cycle.

References
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View WorldCat Record   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • [EI] Econ Incorporated. 1984. Terrestrial wildlife inventory for the Lame Jones and Ismay coal lease tracts. Econ Incorporated. Helena, MT.
    • [VTNWI] VTN Wyoming Incorporated. No Date. Second year's analysis of terrestrial wildlife on proposed mine access and railroad routes in southern Montana and northern Wyoming, March 1979 - February 1980. VTN Wyoming Incorporated. Sheridan, WY. 62 p.
    • [WESCO] Western Ecological Services Company. 1983a. Wildlife inventory of the Knowlton known recoverable coal resource area, Montana. Western Ecological Services Company, Novato, CA. 107 p.
    • [WESCO] Western Ecological Services Company. 1983b. Wildlife inventory of the Southwest Circle known recoverable coal resource area, Montana. Western Ecological Services Company, Novato, CA. 131 p.
    • [WESTECH] Western Technology and Engineering Incorporated. 1998. Wildlife monitoring Absaloka Mine area 1997. Western Technology and Engineering, Inc., Helena, MT.
    • Andry, M.L., M.W. Luttges, and R.I. Gamow. 1971. Temperature effects on spontaneous and evoked neural activity in the garter snake. Experimental Neurology 31: 32-44.
    • Anton, T.G. 2000. Thamnophis radix (plains garter snake) predation. Herpetological Review 31(1):47.
    • Arnold, S.J. and A.F. Bennett. 1984a. Behavioral variation in natural populations. III: Antipredator displays in the garter snake Thamnophis radix. Animal Behaviour 32(4): 1108-1118.
    • Arnold, S.J. and A.F. Bennett. 1984b. Behavioral variation in natural populations. V. Morphological correlates of locomotion in the garter snake (T. radix). Biological Journal of Linnean Society 34: 175-190.
    • Atkinson, E.C. and M.L. Atkinson. 2004. Amphibian and reptile survey of the Ashland and Sioux of the Custer National Forest with special emphasis on the Three-Mile Stewardship Area:2002. Marmot's Edge Conservation. 22 p.
    • Bailey, R.M. 1949. Temperature tolerance of gartersnakes in hibernation. Ecology 30: 238-242.
    • Baird, S.F. and C.F. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles., Pt. 1, p. 34-35.
    • Bavetz, M.J. 1993. Thamnophis radix radix (eastern Plains garter snake). Herpetological Review 24(2): 69.
    • Baxter, G. T. and M. D. Stone. 1985. Amphibians and reptiles of Wyoming. Second edition. Wyoming Game and Fish Department. Cheyenne, WY. 137 p.
    • Begun, D., J.L. Kubie, M. Plough-O'Keefe, and M. Halpern. 1988. Conditioned discrimination of airborne odorants by garter snakes (Thamnophis radix and T. sirtalis sirtalis). Journal of Comparative Psychology 102(1): 35-43.
    • Blackburn, D.G. and R.L. Lorenz. 2003a. Transmission EM of the chorioallantoic placenta of Thamnophis radix and T. sirtalis. Journal of Morphology 256(2):171-186.
    • Blackburn, D.G. and R.L. Lorenz. 2003b. Transmission EM of the omphalallantoic placenta of Thamnophis radix and T. sirtalis. Journal of Morphology 256(2):187-204.
    • BLM. 1982b. Moorhead baseline inventory - wildlife. Bureau of Land Management, Miles City District Office. Miles City, MT. 29 pp.
    • Brunson, R.B. 1955. Check list of the amphibians and reptiles of Montana. Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Sciences 15: 27-29.
    • Bruynonckx, H. 1985. Herbivorous Thamnophis? Litteratura Serpentium 5(2): 69-70.
    • Burghardt, G.M. 1969. Comparative prey-attack studies in newborn snakes of the genus Thamnophis. Behaviour 33: 77-114.
    • Burghart, G.M. and C.H. Pruitt. 1975. Role of the tongue and senses in feeding of naïve and experienced garter snakes. Physiology and Behavior 14: 185-194.
    • Busby, W.H. and J.R. Parmelee. 1996. Historical changes in a herpetofaunal assemblage in the Flint Hills of Kansas. American Midland Naturalist 135(1): 81-91.
    • Chiszar, D., D. Featherman, R. Fuerst, and H.M. Smith. 1994. Observations on the herpetofauna of the indian reservations of southwestern South Dakota. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 29(12): 269-270.
    • Chiszar, D., K. Scudder, and L. Knight. 1976. Rate of tongue flicking by garter snakes (Thamnophis radix haydeni) and rattlesnakes (Crotalus v. viridis, Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus, and Sistrurus catenatus edwardsi) during prolonged exposure to food odors. Behavioral Biology 18(2): 273-283.
    • Chiszar, D., S.V. Taylor, C.W. Radcliffe, H.M. Smith, and B. O'Connell. 1981. Effects of chemical and visual stimuli upon chemosensory searching by garter snakes and rattlesnakes. Journal of Herpetology 15(4): 415-424.
    • Chiszar, D., T. Carter, L. Knight, L. Simonsen, and S. Taylor. 1976. Investigatory behavior in the plains gartersnake (Thamnophis radix) and several additional species. Animal Learning and Behavior 4: 273-278.
    • Cieslak, E.S. 1945. Relations between the reproductive cycle and the pituitary gland in the snake Thamnophis radix. Physiological Zoology 18: 299-329.
    • Cochran, D.C. 1961. Type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the United States National Museum. U.S. National Museum Bulletin (220) xv + 291pp.
    • Conant, R., E.S. Thomas, and R.L. Rausch. 1945. The plains garter snake, Thamnophis radix, in Ohio. Copeia 1945: 61-67.
    • Cooper, S.V., C. Jean, and P. Hendricks. 2001. Biological survey of a prairie landscape in Montana’s glaciated plains. Report to the Bureau of Land Management. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 24 pp. plus appendices.
    • Cooper, W.E. 1992. Post-bite elevation in tongue-flick rate by neonatal garter snakes (Thamnophis radix). Ethology 91(4): 339-345.
    • Cope, E.D. 1875. Check-list of North American Batrachia and Reptilia; with a systematic list of the higher groups, and an essay on geographical distribution. Based on the specimens contained in the U.S. National Museum. U.S. Natioanl Museum Bulletin 1: 1-104.
    • Cope, E.D. 1900. The crocodilians, lizards, and snakes of North America. Report of the U.S. National Museum 1898: 153-1270.
    • Coues, E. and H. Yarrow. 1878. Notes on the herpetology of Dakota and Montana. Bulletin of the U.S. Geological Geographic Survey of the Territories 4: 259-291.
    • Crother, B.I. (ed.) 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico. SSAR Herpetological Circular No. 37:1-84.
    • Dalrymple, G.H. and N.G. Reichenbach. 1981. Interactions between the prairie garter snake (Thamnophis radix) and the common gartersnake (T. sirtalis) in Killdeer Plains, Wyandot County, Ohio. Ohio Biological Survey Biology Notes 15: 244-250.
    • Dalrymple, G.H. and N.G. Reichenbach. 1984. Management of an endangered species of snake in Ohio, USA. Biological Conservation 30(3): 195-200.
    • Day, D., P.J. Farmer, and C.E. Farmer. 1989. Montco terrestrial wildlife monitoring report December, 1987 - July, 1989. Montco, Billings, MT, and Western Technology and Engineering, Inc. Helena, MT.
    • de Jong, J. 1986. Breeding results. Thamnophis radix. Litteratura Serpentium English Edition 6(2): 74.
    • de Queiroz, A. and R. Lawson. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships of the garter snakes based on DNA sequence and allozyme variation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 53: 209-229.
    • Dill, C.D. 1972. Reptilian core temperatures: variation within individuals. Copeia 1972(3): 577-579.
    • Dood, A. R. 1980. Terry Badlands nongame survey and inventory final report. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. 70 p.
    • Doughty, P. 1994. Critical thermal minima of garter snakes (Thamnophis) depend on species and body size. Copeia 1994(2): 537-540.
    • Econ, Inc., Helena, MT., 1988, Wildlife monitoring report, 1987 field season, Big Sky Mine. March 1988. In Peabody Mining and Reclamation Plan Big Sky Mine Area B. Vol. 8, cont., Tab 10 - Wildlife Resources. Appendix 10-1, 1987 Annual Wildlife Report.
    • Econ, Inc., Helena, MT., 1991, Wildlife monitoring report: 1989 field season, Big Sky Mine. March 1991.
    • Engeman, R.M., I.M. Engeman, and A.N. Engeman. 2002. Thamnophis radix (plains garter snake) Brood size. Herpetological Review 33(1):59.
    • Ernst, C.H. 1989. Geographic Distribution. Thamnophis radix haydenii. Herpetological Review 20(3): 76.
    • Ernst, C.H. 1989. Thamnophis radix haydenii (western plains garter snake). Herpetological Review 20(3): 76.
    • Fjell, Alan K., 1986, Peabody Coal Company Big Sky Mine, Rosebud County, MT. Wildlife monitoring report: 1985 field season. March 1986.
    • Fjell, Alan K., and Brian R. Mahan., 1987, Big Sky Mine, Rosebud County, MT. Wildlife monitoring report: 1986 field season. April 1987.
    • Ford, N.B. 1982. Species specificity of sex pheromone trails of sympatric and allopatric garter snakes (Thamnophis). Copeia 1982: 10-13.
    • Ford, N.B. and C.W. Schofield. 1984. Species specificity of sex pheromone trails in the plains garter snake, Thamnophis radix. Herpetologica 40: 51-55.
    • Ford, N.B. and J.R. Low. 1984. Sex pheromone source location by garter snakes: a mechanism for detection of direction in nonvolatile trails. Journal of Chemical Ecology 10(8): 1193-1199.
    • Gates, M.T. 2005. Amphibian and reptile baseline survey: CX field study area. Report to Billings and Miles City Field Offices of Bureau of Land Management. Maxim Technologies, Billings, MT. 28pp + Appendices.
    • Graves, B.M. and M. Halpern. 1988. Neonate plains garter snakes (Thamnophis radix) are attracted to conspecific skin extracts. Journal of Comparative Psychology 102(3): 251-253.
    • Gregory, P.T. 1977a. Life history observations of three species of snakes in Manitoba. Canadian Field Naturalist 91(1): 19-27.
    • Halloy, M. and G.M. Burghardt. 1990. Ontogeny of fish capture and ingestion in four species of garter snakes (Thamnophis). Behaviour 112(3-4): 299-318.
    • Hammerson, G. A. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles in Colorado. University Press of Colorado & Colorado Division of Wildlife. Denver, CO. 484 p.
    • Hart, D.R. 1975. A quantitative niche comparison of the western plains garter snake (Thamnophis radix haydeni) and the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) in allopatric and sympatric regions of Manitoba's interlake district. M.S. Thesis, University of Manitoba. 76 p.
    • Hart, D.R. 1979. Niche relationships of Thamnophis radix haydeni and Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis in the interlake district of Manitoba. Tulane Students of Zoology and Botany 21(2): 125-140.
    • Heckrotte, C. 1960. The effect of environmental factors on the locomotory activity of the plains garter snake (Thamnophis radix radix). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign); 66p.
    • Heckrotte, C. 1975. Temperature and light effects on the circadian rhythm and locomotory activity of the plains garter snake (Thamnophis radix haydeni). Journal of Interdisciplinary Cycle Research 6(4): 279-290.
    • Hendricks, P. 1999. Amphibian and reptile survey of the Bureau of Land Management Miles City District, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 80 p.
    • Hendricks, P. 1999. Amphibian and reptile surveys on Montana refuges: 1998-1999. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 22pp.
    • Hendricks, P. and J. D. Reichel. 1996. Preliminary amphibian and reptile survey of the Ashland District, Custer National Forest: 1995. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 79 p.
    • Hendricks, P. and J. D. Reichel. 1998. Amphibian and reptile survey on Montana refuges: 1996. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 19 p.
    • Holtzman, D.A., G.R. Eyck, and D. Begun. 1989. Artificial hibernation of garter (Thamnophis sp.) and corn (Elaphe guttata guttata) snakes. Herpetological Review 20(3): 67-68.
    • Hossack, B. and P.S. Corn. 2001. Amphibian survey of Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge Complex: 2001. USGS Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, Missoula, MT. 13 p.
    • Kerfin, J. 2001. Variation in thermal biology as a function of body size in Thamnophis radix. Unpubl. M.S. Thesis, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb.
    • Kubie, J.L., J. Cohen, and M. Halpern. 1978. Shedding enhances the sexual attractiveness of oestradiol treated garter snakes and their untreated penmates. Animal Behavior 26: 562-570.
    • Land & Water Consulting, Inc., Missoula, MT., 2002, Montana Dept. of Transportation Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report, Year 2001: Beaverhead Gateway, Dillon, Montana. Proj. No. 130091.011. July 2002. In 2001 Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Reports, Vol. I.
    • Land & Water Consulting, Inc., Missoula, MT., 2002, Montana Dept. of Transportation Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report, Year 2001: Fourchette Creek Reservoir Complex, Phillips County, Montana. Proj. No. 130091.023. July 2002. In 2001 Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Reports, Vol. I.
    • Land & Water Consulting, Inc., Missoula, MT., 2002, Montana Dept. of Transportation Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report, Year 2002: Musgrave Lake, Zurich, Montana. Proj. No. 130091.019. May 2003. In 2002 Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Reports, Vol. II.
    • Land & Water Consulting, Inc., Missoula, MT., 2002, Montana Dept. of Transportation Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report, Year 2002: Wigeon Reservoir, Alzada, Montana. Proj. No. 130091.028. February 2003. In 2002 Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Reports, Vol. II.
    • Lawson, P.A. and D.M. Secoy. 1991. The use of solar cues as migratory orientation guides by the plains garter snake, Thamnophis radix. Canadian Journal of Zooogy 69(10): 2700-2702.
    • Lesch, M.E. and J.D. Fawcett. 1978. Preliminary observations on the life history of the western plains garter snake, Thamnophis radix haydeni, in Douglas County, Nebraska. Proceedings of the Nebraskan Academy of Science 88: 17.
    • Lomolino, M.V. and G.A. Smith. 2004. Terrestrial vertebrate communities at black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) towns. Biological Conservation 115(1):89-100.
    • Martin, P.R. 1980b. Terrestrial wildlife inventory in selected coal areas of Montana. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. 84 p.
    • Martin, P.R., K. Dubois and H.B. Youmans. 1981. Terrestrial wildlife inventory in selected coal areas, Powder River resources area final report. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and Bureau of Land Management, Helena, MT. 288 p.
    • Matity, J.G., D.P. Chivers, and R.J.F. Smith. 1994. Population and sex differences in antipredator responses of breeding fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to chemical stimuli from garter snakes (Thamnophis radix and T. sirtalis). Journal of Chemical Ecology 20(8): 2111-2121.
    • Matthews, W.L. 1979. Wibaux-Beach wildlife baseline study - nongame species. Bureau of Land Management, Miles City, MT. 93 p.
    • Matthews, W.L. 1980a. Wibaux-Beach comparison study: Sydney, Glendive and Plevna Study Areas. Bureau of Land Management, Miles City, MT. 50 p.
    • Matthews, W.L. 1980b. Wildlife of Prairie County Terry study area. Bureau of Land Management, Miles City, MT. 52 p.
    • Matthews, W.L. 1981. Broadus-Pumpkin Creek baseline inventory - wildlife. Bureau of Land Management, Miles City, MT. 83 p.
    • Matthews, W.L. 1982. Bloomfield-North Fork Baseline Inventories - Wildlife. Unpublished report to the Bureau of Land Management, Miles City, Montana. 61 pp.
    • Maxell, B. A., J. K. Werner, P. Hendricks and D. L. Flath. 2003. Herpetology in Montana: a history, status summary, checklists, dichotomous keys, accounts for native, potentially native, and exotic species, and indexed bibliography. Society for Northwestern Vertebrate Biology, Northwest Fauna Number 5. Olympia, WA. 135 p.
    • Mosimann, J.E. and G.B. Rabb. 1952. The herpetology of Tiber Reservoir Area, Montana. Copeia (1): 23-27.
    • Murphy, J.C. and R.M. Curry. 2000. A case of parthenogenesis in the plains garter snake, Thamnophis radix. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 35(2):17-19.
    • Nero, R.W. 2002. Unusually large plains garter snake. Blue Jay 60(3):183.
    • Ostermeier, P. 1992. Scale variation of the great plains gartersnake, Thamnophis radix. Proceedings of the Nebraska Academy of Science 102: 36.
    • Platvoet, H.J. 1989. Breeding results. Thamnophis radix haydeni. Litteratura Serpentium English Edition 9(2): 89-90.
    • Platvoet, H.J. 1990. Breeding results. Thamnophis radix haydeni. Litteratura Serpentium English Edition 10(6): 267.
    • Platvoet, H.J. 1991. Thamnophis radix haydeni. Litteratura Serpentium English Edition 11(5): 114.
    • Potts, R. 1995. Observations on the eastern plains garter snake, Thamnophis radix radix. Herptological Review 20(2): 88-91.
    • Powell, R. and D.D. Smith. 1983. Thamnophis radix haydeni (western plains garter snake). Herpetological Review 14(3): 85.
    • Rauch, J.C. 1978. Integumentary bloodvascular system in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis and Thamnophis radix). Canadian Journal of Zoology 56(3): 469-476.
    • Rauscher, R.L. 1998. Amphibian and reptile survey on selected Montana Bureau of Reclamation impoundments. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Nongame Program. Bozeman, MT. 24 pp.
    • Redmer, M. 1988. Two instances of reptile prey discarded by avian predators. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 23(2): 28.
    • Redmer, M. and J.P. Zaworski. 1987. Notes on two red plains garter snakes, Thamnophis radix radix, from Illinois. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 22(11): 179.
    • Reichel, J. and D. Flath. 1995. Identification of Montana's amphibians and reptiles. Montana Outdoors 26(3):15-34.
    • Reichel, J. D. 1995. Preliminary amphibian and reptile survey of the Sioux District of the Custer National Forest: 1994. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 75 p.
    • Reichel, J.D. 1997. Amphibian, reptile and northern bog lemming survey on the Rocky Mountain Front: 1996. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 81 p.
    • Roedel, M.D. and P. Hendricks. 1998. Amphibian and reptile survey on the Bureau of Land Management Lewistown District: 1995-1998. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 53 p.
    • Ross, P., Jr. and D. Crews. 1977. Influence of the seminal plug on mating behaviour in the garter snake. Nature 267(5609): 344-345.
    • Ross, P., Jr. and D. Crews. 1978. Stimuli influencing mating behavior in the garter snake, Thamnophis radix. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 4(2): 133-142.
    • Royans, D. 2005. Scientific name: Thamnophis radix common name: the plains garter snake. Herptile 30(1):13-18.
    • Russell, A. P. and A. M. Bauer. 1993. The amphibians and reptiles of Alberta. University of Calgary Press. Calgary, Alberta. 264 p.
    • Ruthven, A.G. 1908. Variations and genetic relationships of the garter snakes. Bulletin of the U.S. National Museum 61: xii + 201pp.
    • Scow, K.L. 1980. Terrestrial wildlife survey American Colloid study area Phillips County, Montana. Western Technology and Engineering, Inc., Helena, MT.
    • Scudder-Davis, R.M. and G.M. Burghardt. 1987. Diet and growth in juveniles of the garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis and Thamnophis radix radix. Growth 51(1): 74-85.
    • Secoy, D.M. 1970. Aberrant head scalation in Thamnophis radix haydeni (Kennicott). Journal of Herpetology 4: 91-92.
    • Secoy, D.M. 1979. Investigatory behavior of plains garter snakes, Thamnophis radix (reptilia: colubridae), in tests of repellent chemicals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 57(3): 691-693.
    • Seidel, M.E. and R.G. Lindeborg. 1973. Lags in metabolic response to temperature of two garter snakes, Thamnophis elegans and Thamnophis radix. Herpetological 29(4): 358-360.
    • Seigel, R.A. 1985. The foraging ecology and resource partitioning patterns of two species of garter snakes. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kansas; 138p. 1984.
    • Shine, R., B. Phillips, H. Waye, M. LeMaster, and R.T. Mason. 2004. Species-isolating mechanisms in a mating system with male mate choice (garter snakes, Thamnophis spp.). Canadian Journal of Zoology 82(7):1091-1098.
    • Smith, A.G. 1949. The subspecies of the plains garter snake, Thamnophis radix. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences. 8(14): 285-300.
    • Smith, H.M. and D. Chiszar. 1981. An observation on winter emergence of a garter snake, Thamnophis radix. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 17: 107-109.
    • Stanford, K.M. and R.B. King. 2004. Growth, survival and reproduction in a Northern Illinois population of the plains gartersnake, Thamnophis radix. Copeia 3:465-478.
    • Stanford, K.M. and R.B. King. 2004. Growth, survival and reproduction in a Northern Illinois population of the plains gartersnake, Thamnophis radix. Copeia 3:465-478.
    • Stebbins, R. C. 2003. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. 3rd Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston and New York. 533 p.
    • Terrick, T.D., R.L. Mumme, and G.M. Burghardt. 1995. Aposematic coloration enhances chemosensory recognition of noxious prey in the garter snake Thamnophis radix. Animal Behaviour 49(4): 857-866.
    • Thompson, L.S. and P.S. Nichols. 1982. Circle West wildlife monitoring study; fourth annual report for period March 1, 1981 - May 31, 1982. Circle West Technical Report No. 10. Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Helena, MT.
    • Tucker, J.K. 1994c. Thamnophis radix (plains garter snake). Herpetological Review 25(4): 168.
    • Van het Meer, J. 1986. My experiences with the garter snake Thamnophis radix haydeni. Lacerta 44(7): 116-117.
    • Van het Meer, J. 1988. The genus Thamnophis, part 4: Thamnophis radix haydeni. Litteratura Serpentium English Edition 8(5): 207-21.
    • Van het Meer, J. 1989a. The genus Thamnophis, part 5: Thamnophis (radix) butleri. Litteratura Serpentium English Edition 9(1): 4-8.
    • Van het Meer, J. 1989b. The genus Thamnophis, part 6: Thamnophis (radix) brachystoma. Litteratura Serpentium English Edition 9(2): 63-67.
    • Vitt, L.J., J.P. Caldwell, and D.B. Shepard. 2005. Inventory of amphibians and reptiles in the Billings Field Office Region, Montana. Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History and Department of Zoology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK. 33 pp.
    • VTN Colorado, Inc. Decker Coal Company., 1975, Draft environmental impact assessment for the proposed North Extension of the West Decker Mine.
    • Waage, Bruce C., 2000, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: 1999 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 1998 - November 30, 1999. February 2000.
    • Wang, R.T. and M. Halpern. 1980a. Light and electron microscopic observations on the normal structure of the vomeronasal organ of garter snakes. Journal of Morphology 164(1): 47-67.
    • Wang, R.T. and M. Halpern. 1980b. Scanning electron microscopic studies of the surface morphology of the vomeronasal epithelium and olfactory epithelium of garter snakes. American Journal of Anatomy 157(4): 399-428.
    • Werner, J. K., B. A. Maxell, P. Hendricks and D. L. Flath. 2004. Amphibians and Reptiles of Montana. Mountain Press Publishing Company: Missoula, MT, 262 pp.
    • Wheeler, G.C. and J. Wheeler. 1966. The amphibians and reptiles of North Dakota. University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND. 104 pp.
    • Wied, M.P. 1865. Verzeichniss der reptilien, welche auf einer reise in nordlichen America beobachtet wurden, von Maximilian, Prinzen zu Wied. Eigengangen bei der Akademie am 1, Juni 1865. Druck von E. Blochmann und Sohn, Dresden, Germany. 141 p.
    • Wolverkamp, J. 1985. Breeding results: Thamnophis radix haydeni. Litteratura Serpentium 5(2): 76.
    • Yarrow, H.C. 1882. Check list of North American reptilia and batrachia, with catalogue of specimens in the U.S. National Museum. United States National Museum Bulletin 24. 249 p.
    • Yeager, C.P. and G.M. Burghardt. 1991. Effect of food competition on aggregation: Evidence for social recognition in the plains garter snake (Thamnophis radix). Journal of Comparative Psychology 105(4): 380-386.
    • Zwart, P., G.M. Dorrestein, F.C. Stades, and B.H. Broer. 1979. Vasectomy in the garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis radix). Journal of Zoological Animal Medicine 10(1): 17-21.
  • Web Search Engines for Articles on "Plains Gartersnake"
Login Logout
Citation for data on this website:
Plains Gartersnake — Thamnophis radix.  Montana Field Guide.  Montana Natural Heritage Program and Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks.  Retrieved on October 20, 2014, from http://FieldGuide.mt.gov/speciesDetail.aspx?elcode=ARADB36100
 
There are currently 13 active users in the Montana Field Guide.