Woodland Caribou - Rangifer tarandus caribou
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Western Hemisphere Range
Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations:
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(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Spring: follow green-up, lower elevations, open timber; females calve at higher elevation slopes and ridges. Summer: mature spruce-fir, north slopes; rut habitat similar, moister, denser. Early Winter: old growth cedar-hemlock. Late Winter: mature subalpine fir.
Winter: arboreal lichens. Spring: forbs and shrubs. Summer: Vaccinium membranaceum and Valeriana sitchensis. Fall and early Winter: evergreen forbs and shrubs and arboreal lichens.
26 to 28 caribou in northern ID, southern BC, 3 to 5 calves, 11 to 13 cows, 3 to 10 immature bulls, 3 to 4 mature bulls, cows, calves, immature bulls usually found together in 3.4 groups, mature bulls often more solitary - often move south.
Selkirk herd raised 3 calves 1982 and 84, 5 calves in 1985. Calving second week of June at high elevations; high early calf mortality, maybe as high as 50 to 75% annually. Rut mid-September to October.
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- Anonymous. 1953. Caribou on the Yaak. Montana Wildlife. August.
- Evans, H. F. 1960. A preliminary investigation of caribou in northwestern United States. M.S. thesis, Montana State University, Missoula. 145 pp.
- Evans, H. F. 1960. A preliminary investigation of caribou in northwestern United States. M.S. thesis. University of Montana, Missoula. 145 pp.
- Manley, T. L. 1986. Status review of woodland caribou in Montana. Unpubl. Rep., Mont. Dept. of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena. 84 pp.
- Manley, T. L. 1986. Status survey of woodland caribou in Montana, final progress report. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. March, 1986. 84 pp.
- Miller, D. R. 1977. Feasibility of reintroducing caribou in Glacier National Park [1976 progress report]. P. 49 in K. L. McArthur, comp., 1976 Annual Research Summary, Glacier National Park. USDI National Park Service, Glacier National Park. 64 pp.
- Miller, D. R. 1977. Feasibility of reintroducing caribou in Glacier National Park. Prog. Rep. 16 pp.
- Miller, D. R. 1977. The feasibility of reintroducing caribou in Glacier National Park: a preliminary study. Unpubl. Rep. 16 pp.
- Scott, M. D., and G. Servheen. 1985. Caribou ecology. Job Compl. Rep. Fed. Aid Proj. W-160-R-l1. Idaho Fish and Game, Boise. 136 pp.
- Servheen, G., and L. J. Lyon. 1989. Habitat use by woodland caribou in the Selkirk Mountains. J. Wildlife Management 53:230-237.
- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1984. Selkirk mountain caribou management/recovery plan. U.S. Fish Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon. 121 pp.