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Kokanee Salmon - Oncorhynchus nerka

Non-native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: SNA

Agency Status
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General Description
The kokanee is the landlocked version of the sockeye salmon. Kokanee were first introduced into Montana in Flathead Lake in 1914 and are currently fairly widespread in the western half of the state on both sides of the Divide. Kokanee can achieve sizes of 3 to 5 pounds but 1-pounders are most common. The size of kokanee in Montana waters is a function of two factors, their own population density and the abundance of their available food supply. Kokanee are strictly plankton feeders and they can rapidly overpopulate, resulting in large numbers of stunted fish. Kokanee spawn naturally in many Montana waters. They either run upstream from their lake habitat or spawn along the lake shorelines in the fall. Most kokanee reach sexual maturity in their fourth year of life and they then undergo a dramatic transformation prior to spawning. The silvery specimen seen here becomes a smooth-skinned, red-colored spawning fish with large hooked jaws and teeth on the males. All the adults die after spawning, making for a tremendous food source for bald eagles, grizzly bears, and other animals. Kokanee are very sensitive to water temperature and school in lakes at a certain depth. Once located, they are readily caught and provide excellent sport as well as table fare.

Diagnostic Characteristics
The anal fin has 13 to 17 rays; its base is longer than the base of the dorsal fin. There are 29 to 40 gill rakers on the first arch.

Species Range
Montana Range

Non-native

Western Hemisphere Range

 


Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 1540

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

 

(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)



Migration
This species often ascends tributary streams to spawn. The runs may be as early as September and October.

Habitat
Habitat consists of cold, clear lakes and reservoirs and Kokanee Salmon are found at all depths. They spawn over loose rubble, gravel, and sand in lower portions of tributary streams or along lake shores (Holton 1981, Brown 1971).

Food Habits
The diet consists mostly of plankton. Micro-crustacea are most important, but midges and other aquatic insects are often taken (Brown 1971). Daphnia thorata is a principal food for all size classes in Flathead Lake (Leathe and Graham 1982).

Ecology
Construction of Lake Koocanusa has been very favorable for populations in the Kootenai River. They are now common in the reservoir, but did not occur prior to inpoundment (Huston et al. 1984).

Reproductive Characteristics
Kokanee sexually mature usually in 4 years and spawn in pairs during November-December. Eggs are laid in redds and hatch in 110 days at 43 degrees F. Fry emerge in spring and enter the lake. Adults die soon after spawning (Brown 1971).

References
  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View Online Publication
    • Brown, C.J.D. 1971. Fishes of Montana. Montana State University, Bozeman, MT. 207 pp.
    • Holton, G.D. 1981. Identification of Montana's most common game and sport fishes. Montana Outdoors reprint.
    • Huston J.E., P. Hamlin; B. May 1937-; Montana. Dept. of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks.; United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. Seattle District. 1984
    • Leathe, S.A. and P.J. Graham. 1982. Flathead Lake fish food habits study. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks. 137 pp.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
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    • Craig, V.E. 1952. A story of fish production as it applies to Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 92 p.
    • Johnson, R.L. 1962. The yield and standing crop of fish in Dailey Lake, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 25 p.
    • McClelland, B. R., and P. T. McClelland. 1986. Bald eagles and kokanee salmon: a rendezvous in Glacier National Park. Western Wildlands 11(4):7-11.
    • Opitz, S.T. 1999. Effects of whirling disease on recruitment of brown trout in the Ruby River and Poindexter Slough, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 97 p.
    • Rahrer, J.F. 1963. Age and growth of four species of fish, Flathead Lake, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 16 p.
    • Spinelli, J.P. 2010. Spatial and temporal entrainment of fish from Hauser Reservoir, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 107 p.
    • Spoon, R.L. 1985. Reproductive biology of Brown and Rainbow Trout below Hauser Dam, Missouri River, with reference to proposed hydroelectric peaking. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 144 p.
    • Sylvester, R. and B. Marotz. 2006. Evaluation of the Biological Effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment on the Fisheries Upstream and Downstream of Hungry Horse and Libby Dams, Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks Annual Report prepared for U.S. Department of EnergyBonneville Power Administration. Bonneville Power Administration Project No. 2006-008-00 Contract No. 28350. 124 p.Contract No. 28350
    • Sylvester, R. and B. Stephens. 2011. Evaluation of the physical and biological effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment upstream and downstream of Libby Dam, Montana. Libby, MT: Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks Annual Report prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville Power Administration Project No. 2006-008-00, Contract Nos. 43309 and 48555. 282 p.
    • Sylvester, R. and B. Stephens. 2012. Evaluation of the physical and biological effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment upstream and downstream of Libby Dam, Montana. Libby, MT: Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks Annual Report prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville Power Administration Project No. 2006-008-00, Contract Nos. 48555 and 53910. 358 p.
    • Sylvester, R., A. Steed, J. Tohtz, and B. Marotz. 2008. Evaluation of the Biological Effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment on the Fisheries Upstream and Downstream of Hungry Horse and Libby Dams, Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks Annual Report prepared for U.S. Department of EnergyBonneville Power Administration. Bonneville Power Administration Project No. 2006-008-00 Contract No. 28350. 124 p.Contract No. 28350
    • Sylvester, R.M. and B. Stephens. 2013. Mainstem Columbia Amendments Research at Libby Dam - Evaluation of the Physical and Biological Effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment Upstream and Downstream of Libby Dam, Montana. Libby, MT: Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks Annual Report prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville Power Administration Project No. 2006-008-00. 386 p.
    • Sylvester, R.M., B.C. Stephens, and J.T. Frye. 2014. Mainstem Columbia Amendments Research at Libby Dam - Evaluation of the Physical and Biological Effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment Upstream and Downstream of Libby Dam, Montana. Libby, MT: Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks Annual Report prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville Power Administration Project No. 2006-008-00. 461 p.
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Citation for data on this website:
Kokanee Salmon — Oncorhynchus nerka.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from