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Montana Field Guides

Cisco - Coregonus artedi

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Exotic Species (not native to Montana)

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: SNA

Agency Status
USFWS:
USFS:
BLM:
FWP Conservation Tier: 4


 

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General Description
Cisco is Montana's newest fish species. They were introduced by the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks into Fort Peck Reservoir in 1984, from Saskatchewan, to act as a forage fish for walleye and lake trout. They have produced a rapidly expanding self-reproducing population. Studies are ongoing to determine the value of cisco as a forage fish. Cisco, also known as lake herring, are widespread across eastern and central Canada. They spawn in the fall in shallow water. Cisco are an open water or pelagic species, forming large schools at medium depths where they feed mostly on plankton.

Diagnostic Characteristics
These fish are silvery and somewhat darker on the back. The lower jaw often protrudes slightly with the mouth closed, but the jaws may be equal or the upper may be slightly longer. They have 38 or more gill rakers on the first arch, two flaps of skin between the nostrils (see Lake Whitefish for illustration), and the membrane surrounding the eye has a distinct notch below the pupil (see Mountain Whitefish for illustration).

General Distribution
Montana Range

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Western Hemisphere Range

 


Habitat
Habitat includes deep lakes and large rivers. Pelagic species are usually found in open, deep water. They spawn over shoreline substrate.

Food Habits
Cisco are largely plankton feeders. Some terrestrial and emergent aquatic insects are taken, and rarely fish.

Ecology
Summer kills can be a major threat to populations in inland lakes.

Reproductive Characteristics
Successful reproduction in the state started in the fall of 1985. Spawning occurs in mid-November at 40 degrees F. in Fort Peck Reservoir. They broadcast spawn over the shoreline substrate. Eggs hatch in late April-early May and most fish mature at ages 1-4 years.

References
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Citation for data on this website:
Cisco — Coregonus artedi.  Montana Field Guide.  Montana Natural Heritage Program and Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks.  Retrieved on October 20, 2014, from http://FieldGuide.mt.gov/speciesDetail.aspx?elcode=AFCHA01020
 
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