ScoreU - Unknown
ScoreG - 200,000-2,500,000 km squared (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Comment202,494 square kilometers based on Natural Heritage Program range maps that appear on the Montana Field Guide
Area of Occupancy
ScoreU - Unknown
ScoreE - Relatively Stable (±25% change)
CommentHigher elevation conifer forest habitats have been relatively stable within +/-25% since European arrival.
ScoreE - Stable. Population, range, area occupied, and/or number or condition of occurrences unchanged or remaining within ±10% fluctuation
CommentBreeding Bird Survey data for Montana is of lowest credibility and shows an insignificant trend of +2.6% increase per year or 29% increase per decade. Surrounding states and provinces all have relatively poor data with both positive and negative trends. The Northern Rockies as a whole has moderate credibility with a nonsignificant increase +0.3% increase per year or 3% increase per decade. Christmas Bird Count data does not show a significant trend.
ScoreE - Localized substantial threat. Threat is moderate to severe for a small but significant proportion of the population or area.
CommentFire, insect outbreaks, timber harvest, and collisions with stationary and moving objects are likely the greatest threats to the species.
SeverityModerate - Major reduction of species population or long-term degradation or reduction of habitat in Montana, requiring 50-100 years for recovery.
CommentLoss of spruce/fir forests would require a significant time for recovery
ScopeLow - 5-20% of total population or area affected
CommentIt is unlikely that up to 20% of spruce/fir forests will be lost in the next couple decades
ImmediacyModerate - Threat is likely to be operational within 2-5 years.
ScoreC - Not Intrinsically Vulnerable. Species matures quickly, reproduces frequently, and/or has high fecundity such that populations recover quickly (< 5 years or 2 generations) from decreases in abundance; or species has high dispersal capability such that extirpated populations soon become reestablished through natural recolonization (unaided by humans).
CommentNot Intrinsically Vulnerable. Species matures quickly, reproduces frequently, and/or has a high fecundity such that populations recover quickly (< 5 years or 2 generations) from decreases in abundance. Species has good dispersal capabilities such that extirpated populations generally become reestablished through natural recolonization.
ScoreC - Moderate. Generalist. Broad-scale or diverse (general) habitat(s) or other abiotic and/or biotic factors are used or required by the species but some key requirements are scarce in the generalized range of the species within the area of interest.
CommentModerate Generalist. Favor open conifer forest, usually spruce or fir.