Older males have bright black and orange-yellow plumage. The crown, nape, back, and scapulars being black; the remainder of the head and underparts are orange-yellow in color. The younger males resemble females, which are grayish-green and yellow, with black on the throat (Rising and Williams 1999).
For a comprehensive review of the conservation status, habitat use, and ecology of this and other Montana bird species, please see Marks et al. 2016, Birds of Montana.
Western Hemisphere Range
In the Bozeman area, normal migration periods are from May 17 to May 30 with no discernible fall movement.
Prefers open woodland areas, especially riparian (river) woodlands with large cottonwoods, sycamores, and willows. During spring and fall migration it is found in a variety of open woodland and urban parklands and tall shrubland (Rising and Williams 1999).
Eats mostly insects, especially butterfly and moth larvae and pupae, grasshoppers and crickets, beetles and other insects (Rising and Williams 1999).
Nests are typically pensile, often suspended from a few thin branches. Eggs are oval. Clutch size ranges from 3 to 7 eggs. (Rising and Williams 1999). Statewide, nesting is from May 29 to August 12.