Medium-sized pigeon. Length of males 30 to 36 cm, females 29 to 35 cm. Mass of males 369 g; females 340 g. Bill dark gray; under wing coverts white; tail with blue-black subterminal band; outer rectrix white on proximal 2/3 of outer vane; rump gray or white. Wings usually with two dark bars on greater coverts and inner secondaries. Basic color bluish gray in most, bluish black in some, rusty red in a few and a fraction mostly white or grizzled (Johnston 1992).
For a comprehensive review of the conservation status, habitat use, and ecology of this and other Montana bird species, please see Marks et al. 2016, Birds of Montana.
Western Hemisphere Range
Found chiefly in cities and towns or at farms with livestock; not found far from humans or agriculture (Johnston 1992).
Seeds, fruits, rarely invertebrates. (Johnston 1992).
Many birds reported in county and watershed occurrences may not be records of feral birds.
Roost and nest in crevices. Monogamous for life. Pair formation February through September, with no peaks. Clutch size is 2 eggs. Overlap of clutches and broods common in summer. Interval between first eggs of first and second clutches averages 46 days (Johnston 1992).