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Montana Animal Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Harlequin Duck - Histrionicus histrionicus

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Species of Concern

Global Rank: G4
State Rank: S2B

Agency Status
USFWS:
USFS: SENSITIVE
BLM: SENSITIVE
FWP Conservation Tier: 1
PIF: 1


 

External Links





 
General Description
Male larger than female. Alternate plumage of male is unmistakable: body plumage slate blue; white bands and collars, bordered with black lines, on chest and neck; large white crescent in front of eye; small white circular patch near ear; white vertical stripe along side of neck; black streak, bordered by white and amber lines, on top of head; iridescent blue secondaries; rich dark-slate-blue belly; chestnut-brown flanks. Adult female: brown body plumage; white belly, with brown checks or spots; round white spot behind ear; faded variable white patches in front of eye; and occasionally white streaks on back of head. Juveniles and immatures are much like female, but feet tend to be yellow, not gray (Robertson and Goudie 1999).

General Distribution
Montana Range

Click the legend blocks above to view individual ranges.

Western Hemisphere Range

 


Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations: 3332

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

Breeding
(direct evidence "B")


Breeding
(indirect evidence "b")


No evidence of Breeding
(transient "t")


Overwintering
(regular observations "W")


Overwintering
(at least one obs. "w")



 

(Records associated with a range of dates are excluded from time charts)



Migration
Harlequin Ducks breeding in Montana arrive primarily from late April to early May (Kuchel 1977, Reichel and Genter 1996). Males depart in June while females and young depart from late July to early September (Kuchel 1977, Reichel and Genter 1994). Twenty-four birds banded in western Montana have been sighted off of Oregon (2), Washington (1) and southern British Columbia (21) (Ashley 1995, Reichel and Genter 1996).

Habitat
In Montana, most Harlequin Ducks inhabit fast moving, low gradient, clear mountain streams. Overstory in Montana does not appear to affect habitat use: 1) in Glacier National Park, birds used primarily old-growth or mature forest (90%); and 2) most birds in streams on the Rocky Mountain Front were seen in pole-sized timber (Diamond and Finnegan 1993). Banks are most often covered with a mosaic of trees and shrubs, but the only significant positive correlation is with overhanging vegetation (Diamond and Finnegan 1993, Ashley 1994).

The strongest stream section factor in Montana appears to be for stream reaches with 2+ loafing sites per 10 m (Kuchel 1977, Diamond and Finnegan 1993, Ashley 1994). Broods may preferentially use backwater areas, especially shortly after hatching (Kuchel 1977), though this is not apparent in data from other studies (Ashley 1994). Stream width ranges from 3 m to 35 m in Montana. On stream gradients of 7%, occupied stream reaches ranged from 1.8% to 2.8% (Fairman and Miller 1990), while velocity at 42 Harlequin Duck observation points ranged from 0.8 to 4.1 m per second (Diamond and Finnegan 1993). Harlequin Ducks in Glacier National Park used straight, curved, meandering, and braided stream reaches in proportion to their availability, as was the case for bottom types (Ashley 1994).

No nest sites have been reported from Montana; in the Pacific northwest, nests have been reported on rocks (3); on the ground (2); in a cliff face (1); (Bent 1925, Campbell et al. 1990); in piles of woody debris (2) (Jewett 1931, Thompson 1985); in tree cavities (2); and in a cavity on a cliff (1) (Cassirer et al. 1993).

Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
  • Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
    How Associations Were Made
    We associated the use and habitat quality (high, medium, or low) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
    1. Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2001, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
    2. Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species’ range and habitat requirements;
    3. Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point database associated with each ecological system;
    4. Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of “observations versus availability of habitat”.
    Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.  In general, species were associated as using an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.  However, species were not associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if point observations were associated with that system.  High, medium, and low habitat quality was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species in the literature.  The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignments of habitat quality.  If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact Bryce Maxell at bmaxell@mt.gov or (406) 444-3655.

    Suggested Uses and Limitations
    Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.  These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: http://mtnhp.org/requests/default.asp) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.  Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.  Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.  Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).  Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species’ known geographic range.

    Literature Cited
    • Adams, R.A.  2003.  Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation.  Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.  289 p.
    • Dobkin, D. S.  1992.  Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34.  Missoula, MT.
    • Foresman, K.R.  2001.  The wild mammals of Montana.  Special Publication No. 12.  Lawrence, KS: The American Society of Mammalogists.  278 p.
    • Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998.  Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates.  Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT.  1302 p.
    • Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young.  1999.  Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32.  72 p.
    • Maxell, B.A.  2000.  Management of Montana’s amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species.  Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1.  Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana.  161 p.
    • Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath.  2004.  Amphibians and reptiles of Montana.  Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.

Food Habits
95% of the material in droppings in Grand Teton National Park consisted of Stoneflies, Mayflies, and Caddisflies (Wallen 1987).

Ecology
In Montana, adult males returned to the breeding streams from the previous year 53% of the time, while females returned at a rate of 57% (Reichel and Genter 1996). Of 58 juveniles marked in 1992, at least 12 females and 2 males were alive in 1994 (Reichel and Genter 1996). All females known to be alive have returned to their natal streams, while no males have (Reichel and Genter 1996). Nearly all duckling (through fledging) mortality apparently occurs during the first 3 weeks following hatching (Kuchel 1977). In Idaho, the spring adult male:female ratio is 1.31:1 (n=81) (Cassirer 1995).

Densities of Harlequins in Montana range from 0.05 to 0.21 pairs per km on the Rocky Mountain Front to 0.67 to 0.91 pairs per km on McDonald Creek (Kuchel 1977). Linear home ranges averaged 7.7 km on McDonald Creek (Kuchel 1977). Four relatively long distance movements between streams, across large reservoirs or lakes, have been reported in Montana ranging from 16 to 31 km (Reichel and Genter 1996).

Reproductive Characteristics
In Montana, egg-laying takes place between April 30 and July 4 with most between May 10 and June 10; it tends to be during the earlier dates on the lower Clark Fork River tributaries and during the later dates on the streams north of Yellowstone National Park (Kuchel 1977, Reichel and Genter 1996). Kuchel (1977) estimated hatching dates for broods on McDonald Creek, Glacier National Park: 13 of 15 occurred between June 27 and July 7 with extremes on June 11 and August 2. Young fledge in Montana between July 15 and September 10, with most fledging between July 25 and August 15 (Kuchel 1977, Reichel and Genter 1996).

In Montana, no males have been reported on breeding streams prior to attaining fully adult plumage at 3-years of age (Phillips 1986, Reichel and Genter 1996). The youngest female known to have bred is a single 2-year-old, although 9 additional 2-year-olds have been observed on natal streams and 13 marked 2-year-olds are known to have been alive (Reichel and Genter 1996).

In Montana during 1989 to 1994, annual numbers of ducklings fledged per adult female averaged 1.60 and ranged from 0.84 to 3.15 (n=230 adult females) (Reichel and Genter 1995). Brood size of Class 1-IIb young (Bellrose 1976) averaged 5.1 on the Rocky Mountain Front (Diamond and Finnegan 1993), while throughout Montana, size IIc to fledging averaged 3.57 and ranged from 2.81 to 5.86 (n=103) (Diamond and Finnegan 1993, Reichel and Genter 1995). It should be noted that Harlequin Ducks have essentially no chance to renest because males leave the breeding streams to return to the ocean soon after incubation begins.

The proportion of females successfully raising a brood varies widely between years. In Montana, 230 females observed between 1989 and 1994 raised 103 broods for an average of 44.8% and ranged from 24% to 55% (Reichel and Genter 1995). High summer runoff has been associated with low productivity (Kuchel 1977, Diamond and Finnegan 1992, 1993, Reichel and Genter 1993, 1995).

References
  • Literature Cited AboveLegend:   View WorldCat Record   View Online Publication
    • Ashley, J. 1994. 1992-93 harlequin duck monitoring and inventory in Glacier National Park, Montana. Unpublished report. Division of Research Management, Glacier Natl. Park, Montana. 57 pp.
    • Ashley, J. 1994. Progress report: harlequin duck inventory and monitoring in Glacier National Park, Montana. Unpublished report. Division of Research Management, Glacier Natl. Park, Montana. 14 pp.
    • Ashley, J. 1995. Harlequin duck surveys and tracking in Glacier National Park, Montana. Unpublished report. Division of Natural Resources, Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. 41 pp.
    • Bellrose, F. C. 1976. Plumage development of young waterfowl. In: Ducks, geese and swans of North America. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA. 540 pp.
    • Bent, A. C. 1925. Life histories of North American wild fowl. Order: Anseres (Part II). U.S. National Museum Bulletin 130. Washington, D.C. 316 pp.
    • Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser and M. C. McNall. 1990. The birds of British Columbia, Vols. 1 and 2: Non passerines. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, B. C. 518 and 636 pp.
    • Cassirer, E. F. 1993. Harlequin duck status report 1992: Idaho. pp. 27-30 In: Cassirer, E. F., et al., eds. Status of Harlequin ducks in North America. 83 pp.
    • Cassirer, E. F. 1995. Harlequin duck monitoring in northern Idaho, 1995. Cooperative project report. Idaho Department of Fish & Game, North Idaho Traditional Bowhunters, U.S. Forest Service, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. 20 pp.
    • Diamond, S. and P. Finnegan. 1992. Harlequin duck ecology on Montana's Rocky Mountain Front. Unpublished report. Rocky Mountain District, Lewis and Clark National Forest, Choteau, MT. 45 pp.
    • Diamond, S. and P. Finnegan. 1993. Harlequin duck ecology on Montana's Rocky Mountain Front. Unpublished report. Rocky Mountain District, Lewis and Clark National Forest, Choteau, MT. 45 pp.
    • Fairman, L. and G. Miller. 1990. Results of the 1990 survey for harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) on the Kootenai National Forest, Montana and parts of the Lolo National Forest, Montana. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program.
    • Jewett, S. G. 1931. Nesting of the Pacific harlequin duck in Oregon. Condor 33:255.
    • Kuchel, C. R. 1977. Some aspects of the behavior and ecology of harlequin ducks breeding in Glacier National Park, Montana. M.S. thesis. University of Montana, Missoula. 160 pp.
    • Phillips, J. C. 1986. Harlequin duck. A natural history of the ducks, vol. III. Dover Publications, Inc., NY. 383 pp.
    • Reichel, J. D. and D. L. Genter. 1995. Harlequin Duck surveys in western Montana: 1994. Montana Natural Heritage Program. 58 pp.
    • Reichel, J. D. and D. L. Genter. 1993. Harlequin duck surveys in western Montana: 1992. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 67 pp., including appendices and maps.
    • Reichel, J. D. and D. L. Genter. 1994. Harlequin duck surveys in western Montana: 1993. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 87 pp.
    • Reichel, J. D. and D. L. Genter. 1996. Harlequin duck surveys in western Montana: 1995. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. vii + 107 pp.
    • Robertson, G.J. and R.I. Goudie. 1999. Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus). In: A. Poole, ed. The Birds of North America Online, Species Account Number 466. Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY. Retrieved 3/25/2008 from The Birds of North America Online database.
    • Thompson, L. 1985. A harlequin romance. Montana Outdoors 16:21-25.
    • Wallen, R. L. 1987. Habitat utilization by harlequin ducks in Grand Teton National Park. M.S. thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman. 67 pp.
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View WorldCat Record   View Online Publication
    Do you know of a citation we're missing?
    • Abstracts from Montana Rare Animal Meeting. 1992. [November 5-6, 1992]. Lewistown, MT. 20 pp.
    • American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. 829 pp.
    • Ashley, J. 1992. A summary of documented harlequin duck observations in Glacier National Park, 1874-1992. Unpublished draft report. 18 pp. plus maps.
    • Ashley, J. 1994. Status of Harlequin ducks in Glacier National Park, Montana. P. 2 in: Proc. 2nd ann. Harlequin duck symposium, March 13-15, 1994. Harlequin Duck Working Group. 22 pp. plus appendices.
    • Ashley, J. 1996. Harlequin duck inventory and monitoring in Glacier National Park, Montana. Unpublished report. Division of Natural Resources, Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. 21 pp.
    • Ashley, J. 1997. Harlequin Duck inventory and monitoring in Glacier Natioanal Park, Montana. Unpublished report. Division ofNatural Resources, Glacier National Park. West Glacier, Montana. 36 pp.
    • Atkinson, E. C. 1991. Distribution and status of harlequin ducks and common loons on the Targhee National Forest. Idaho Dep. of Fish and Game, Nongame and endangered wildlife prog. 27 pp.
    • Atkinson, E. C. and M. L. Atkinson. 1990. Distribution and status of harlequin ducks (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS) on the Targhee National Forest. Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game, Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program. 25 pp.
    • Atkinson, E.G. 1991. Distribution of harlequin ducks ( Histrionicus histrionicus ) and common loons (Gavia immer) on the Targee National Forest. Coop. Challenge Cost Share Proj. Targee Natl. For. and Id. Dept. Fish Game.
    • Bellrose, F.C. 1978. Ducks, geese, and swans of North America. Wildlife Management Institute, Stockpole Books.
    • Bengtson, S.-A. 1966. Field studies on the harlequin duck in Iceland. Wildfowl Trust Ann. Rep. 17:79-84.
    • Bengtson, S.-A. 1972. Breeding ecology of the harlequin duck (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS) in Iceland. Ornis Scand. 3:1-19.
    • Bengtson, S.-A. and S. Ulfstrand. 1971. Food resources and breeding frequency of the harlequin duck HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS in Iceland. Oikos 22:235-239.
    • Boyd, D. 1994. Conservation of harlequin ducks (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS). University of Montana School of Forestry, Missoula, MT. 14 pp.
    • Breault, A. M. 1993. Harlequin duck status report 1992: British Columbia. Pp. 60-64 in: Cassirer, E. F., et al., (eds.), Status of Harlequin ducks in North America. Harlequin Duck Working Group. 83 pp.
    • Breault, A. M. and J.-P. L. Savard. 1991. Status report on the distribution and ecology of harlequin ducks in British Columbia. Can Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region, Tech. Rep. Series 110. 108 pp.
    • Brown, M. E. 1998. Population genetic structure, kinship, and social associations in three Harlequin Duck {Histrionicus histrionicus) breeding subpopulations. M.S. Thesis, University of California, Davis. 104 pp.
    • Byrd, G. V., J. C. Williams, and A. Durand. 1992. The status of Harlequin ducks in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Pp. 14-22 in: Proc. Harlequin Duck Symposium, April 23-24, 1992, Moscow, Idaho. ID Dept. of Fish & Game, U.S. For. Serv. Intermountain Research Station, ID Panhandle Nat. Forests, and Northwest Section of Wildlife Society. 46 pp.
    • Carlson, J. C. 1990. Results of 1990 surveys for harlequin ducks on the Flathead National Forest, Montana. UnpubI. Rep., USDA Forest Service. 31 pp.
    • Carlson, J. C. 1990. Results of harlequin duck (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS) surveys in 1990 on the Flathead National Forest, Montana. Unpublished report. 31 pp.
    • Carlson, J. C. 1990. Results of harlequin duck surveys in 1990 on the Flathead National Forest, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program report, Helena, MT . 32 pp
    • Casey, D. 2000. Partners in Flight Draft Bird Conservation Plan Montana. Version 1.0. 287 pp.
    • Cassirer, E. F. 1989. Distribution and status of Harlequin ducks (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS) on the Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho. Report on Challenge Cost Share Project. 13 pp.
    • Cassirer, E. F. 1994. Proposed inventory and monitoring protocol for harlequin ducks in northern Idaho. Paper presented at Interagency Rare Animal Workshop, March 2, 1994, Post Falls, Idaho. 14 pp.
    • Cassirer, E. F. 1995. Harlequin duck monitoring on the Moyie River and other tributaries to the Kootenai River in northern Idaho subsequent to natural gas pipeline construction. [Unpublished report]. 11 pp. Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Lewiston, ID.
    • Cassirer, E. F. and C. R. Groves. 1989. Breeding ecology of harlequin ducks (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS) on the Kaniksu National Forest, Idaho. Report on Challenge Cost Share Project. 48 pp.
    • Cassirer, E. F. and C. R. Groves. 1990. A summary of harlequin duck sightings in Idaho, 1989. Unpubl. rep. Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game, Boise. 11 pp.
    • Cassirer, E. F. and C. R. Groves. 1990. Distribution, habitat use and status of harlequin ducks (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS) in northern Idaho, 1990. Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game, Nongame and Endang. Wildl. 54 pp.
    • Cassirer, E. F. and C. R. Groves. 1991. Harlequin duck ecology in Idaho: 1987-1990. Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game, Boise. 93 pp.
    • Cassirer, E. F. and C. R. Groves. 1992. Ecology of Harlequin Ducks in northern Idaho; progress report 1991. Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game, Boise, ID. 74 pp.
    • Cassirer, E. F. and C. R. Groves. 1994. Breeding ecology of Harlequin ducks in Idaho. P. 3 in: Proc. 2nd ann. Harlequin duck symposium, March 13-15, 1994. Harlequin Duck Working Group. 22 pp. plus appendices.
    • Cassirer, E. F. and C. R. Groves. 1994. Ecology of harlequin ducks (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS) in Northern Idaho. Study No. 4202-1-7-2. Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game. 51 pp.
    • Cassirer, E. F. and G. Schirato. 1990. Harlequin duck boat surveys, northwest Washington coast, 9/24-9/29/90. Washington Dept. of Wildl. 1 p.
    • Cassirer, E. F., G. Schirato, F. Sharpe, C. R. Groves, and R. N. Anderson. 1993. Cavity nesting by harlequin ducks in the Pacific Northwest. Wilson Bull. 105:691-694.
    • Cassirer, E. F., J. D. Reichel, R. L. Wallen, and E. Atkinson. 1996. Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) conservation assessment and strategy for the U.S. Rocky Mountains. Montana Natural Heritage Rep., 53 pp. plus appendices.
    • Cassirer, E. F., J. D. Reichel, R. L. Wallen, and E. Atkinson. 1996. Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) conservation assessment and strategy for the U.S. Rocky Mountains. Draft report.
    • Cassirer, E.F. and C.R. Groves. 1992. Status and breeding of Harlequin Ducks in Idaho. in Proceedings, Harlequin Duck Symposium, April 23-24, 1992. Unpubl. Rep., 45pp. Idaho Dept. Fish and Game, Moscow, ID.
    • Cassirer, E.F. and C.R. Groves. 1990. Distribution, habitat use, and status of hariequin ducks in northern Idaho, 1990. Idaho Dept. Fish Game, Nongame Endangered Wildl. Prog. 54 pp.
    • Cassirer, E.F., C.R. Groves and R.L. Wallen. 1991. Distribution and population status of Harlequin Ducks in Idaho. Wilson Bull. 103(4): 723-725.
    • Cassirer, F. 1995. Harlequin duck monitoring in northern Idaho, 1995. Cooperative project report. Idaho Dept. of Fish & Game, North Idaho Traditional Bowhunters, U.S. Forest Service, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. 20 pp.
    • Castren. Chad. 1992. [Report on field surveys for harlequin ducks, summer 1992].
    • Center. D. L. 1992. [Field notes from 13 August re: banding harlequin ducks on Spotted Bear River.]
    • Chadwick, D. H. 1992. Some observations of a concentration of harlequin ducks in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Pp. 33-40 in: Proceedings Harlequin Duck Symposium, Apr 23-24, 1992, Moscow, ID. 45 pp.
    • Clarkson, P. 1992. A preliminary investigation into the status and distribution of harlequin ducks in Jasper National Park. Unpublished Technical Report. Natural Resource Conservation, Jasper National Park, Alberta. 63pp.
    • Clarkson, P. 1994. Managing watersheds for harlequin ducks. Unpublished presentation. American River Management Society River Without Boundaries Symposium, Grand Junction, CO. 33 pp.
    • Clarkson, P. and R. I. Goudie. 1994. Capture techniques and 1993 banding results for moulting Harlequin ducks in the Strait of Georgia, B.C. Pp. 11-14 in: Proc. 2nd ann. Harlequin duck symposium, March 13-15, 1994. Harlequin Duck Working Group. 22 pp. plus appendices.
    • Cooke, F. G. J. Robertson, C. M. Smith, R. I. Goudie, and W. S. Boyd. 2000. Survival, emigration, and winter population structure of Harlequin Ducks. Condor 102:137-144.
    • Cooke, F., G. J. Robertson, R. I. Goudie and W. S. Boyd. 1997. Molt and the basic plumage of male Harlequin Ducks. Condor 99:83-90.
    • Coudie. R. I. 1984. Comparative ecology of Common eiders, black scoters, oldsquaws and harlequin ducks wintering in southeast Newfoundland. Thesis. Univ. of W. Ontario. London, Ontario. Canada.
    • Crowley, D. W. 1994. Breeding habitat of Harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska. P. 4 in: Proc. 2nd ann. Harlequin duck symposium, March 13-15, 1994. Harlequin Duck Working Group. 22 pp. plus appendices.
    • Davis, C.V. 1961. A distributional study of the birds of Montana. Ph.D. dissertation. Oregon State University, Corvallis. 462 pp.
    • Diamond. Seth. 1990. [Various reports of harlequin sightings along the RMF during 1990.]
    • Dzinbal, K. A. 1982. Ecology of Harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, during summer. M.S. thesis. Ore. State Univ., Corvallis. 89 pp.
    • Dzinbal, K. A. and R. L. Jarvis. 1982. Coastal feeding ecology of harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, during summer. Pp. 6-8 in: D. N. Nettleship, et al., (eds.), Marine birds: their feeding ecology and commercial fisheries relationships. Canadian Wildlife Service Special Publication from Proc. Pacific Seabird Group Symposium, Seattle, Washington.
    • Ehrlich, P., D. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1988. The birder’s handbook: a field guide to the natural history of North American birds. Simon and Schuster Inc. New York. 785 pp.
    • Fairman, L. M., and V. E. Miller. 1990. Results of 1990 surveys for harlequin ducks on the Kootenai and Lolo National Forests, Montana. UnpubI. Rep., USDA Forest Service.
    • Fairman, L. M., C. Jones, and D. L. Genter. 1989. Survey results for Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) on the Kootenai National Forest and Flathead National Forest, Montana. Mont. Nat. Heritage Prog., Helena. 20 pp.
    • Fleischner, T. L. 1983. Natural history of Harlequin ducks wintering in northern Puget Sound. M.S. thesis. West. Washington Univ., Bellingham. 49 pp.
    • Flint, V. E., R. L. Boehme, Y. V. Kostin, and A. A. Kuznetsov, (eds.). 1984. Harlequin duck. P. 50 in: Birds of the USSR. The Easton Press, Norwalk, Connecticut. 353 pp.
    • Fournier, M. A., and R. G. Bromley. 1996. Status of the Harlequin Duck, Histrionicus histrionicus, in the western Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Nat. 110:638-641.
    • Gaines, W. L. and R. E. Fitzner. 1987. Winter diet of Harlequin duck at Sequim Bay, Puget Sound, Washington. Northwest Science 61(4):213-215
    • Gangemi, J. T. 1991. Results of the 1991 survey for Harlequin Duck (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS); distribution in the non-wilderness portion of the Flathead National Forest, Montana. Unpublished report for the MTNHP. 26 pp.
    • Genter, D. L. 1992. Status of the Harlequin duck in Montana. P. 5 in: Proc. Harlequin duck symp., April 23-24, 1992, Moscow, Idaho. ID Dept. of Fish & Game, U.S. For. Serv. Intermtn. Res. Stat., ID Panhandle Nat. Forests, and NW Sect. of Wildl. Soc. 46 pp.
    • Genter, D. L. 1993. Harlequin duck status report 1992: Montana. Pp. 31-34 in: Cassirer, E. F., et al., (eds.), Status of harlequin ducks in North America. Harlequin Duck Working Group. 83 pp.
    • Genter, D. L. and J. D. Reichel. 1994. Harlequin duck surveys in western Montana: 1994. P. 19 in: Proc. 2nd ann. Harlequin duck symposium, March 13-15, 1994. Harlequin Duck Working Group. 22 pp. plus appendices.
    • Goudie, R. I. 1988. Breeding distribution of harlequin ducks in northern Labrador. Atlantic Soc. of Fish and Wildl. Biologists. 4(2):17-21.
    • Gudmundsson, F. 1971. Straumendur (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS) a Islande. ("The harlequin duck in Iceland") Natturufroedingurinn 41(1):1-28, (2)64-98. (English summary pp. 84-98).
    • Harlequin Duck Working Group. 1993. Status of harlequin ducks (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS) in North America. iii + 83 pp.
    • Harlequin Duck Working Group. 1994. Proceedings of the second Harlequin Duck symposium. Halrlequin Duck Working Group, Site 12, Box 15, RR 3!, Galiano, B.B. V0n 1P0. 22 pp.
    • Hendricks, P. 1999. Harleqion Duck research and monitoring in Montana: 1998. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 30 pp.
    • Hendricks, P. and J. D. Reichel. 1998. Harlequin duck research and monitoring in Montana: 1997. Unpublished report to ASARCO, Incorporated. 28pp.
    • Hunt, W. A. 1993. Jasper National Park harlequin duck projects, 1992: Maligne Valley pilot projects. Canadian Parks Service, Jasper National Park. 58 pp.
    • Hunt, W. A. 1993. Jasper National Park harlequin duck research project, 1992 pilot projects--interim results. Jasper Warden Service Biological Report Series, No. 1. Heritage Resource Conservation, Parks Canada, Box 10, Jasper, Alberta. 67 pp.
    • Inglis, I. R., J. Lazarus, and R. Torrance. 1989. The pre-nesting behavior and time budget of the Harlequin duck HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS. Wildfowl 40:55-73.
    • Johnsgard, P. A. 1992. Birds of the Rocky Mountains with particular reference to national parks in the northern Rocky Mountain region. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. xi + 504 pp.
    • Johnsgard, P.A. 1975. Waterfowl of North America. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
    • Johnson, D. 1991. Field report of harlequin duck streams surveyed. Unpubl. field notes on file Mont. Nat. Heritage Prog., Helena, Mont.
    • Johnson, D. D. 1991. Productivity and the importance of vegetation: the link between harlequin duck winter and summer habitat. Unpubl. Rep. for Plant Ecol class, Univ. Mont., Missoula. 14 pp.
    • Johnson, D. D. 1991. Results of stream surveys for Harlequin ducks in the Gallatin and a section of the Custer National Forests, Montana. Unpublished report to the Montana Natural Heritage Program. 18 pp.
    • Kerr, R. 1989. Field survey data forms of the harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) of the Kootenai National Forest, Montana. 16 pp.
    • Laurion, T. and B. Oakleaf. 1995. Harlequin duck survey, Shoshone National Forest. Wyoming Game and Fish Dept., Laramie, WY. 10pp.
    • Lee, D. 1991. [Report to the Montana Natural Heritage Program on harlequin duck surveys in the Flathead River basin.]
    • Lee, D. N. B., and D. L. Genter. 1991. Results of harlequin duck (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS) surveys in wilderness areas of the Flathead National Forest, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 31 pp.
    • Lenard, S., J. Carlson, J. Ellis, C. Jones, and C. Tilly. 2003. P. D. Skaar's Montana Bird Distribution, 6th Edition. Montana Audubon: Helena, MT, 144 pp.
    • Maj, M. E. And M. B. Whitfield. 1995. Harlequin duck surveys, final report 1995, Targhee National Forest. U.S. Forest Serv., Targhee Nat. For, Idaho Dep. Fish and Game, Northern Rockies Cons. Coop. 21 pp.
    • Markum, D. 1990. Preliminary report on the distribution and status of the harlequin duck, HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS on the Gallatin National Forest, Montana. Unpublished report for the Gallatin National Forest. Montana National Heritage Program. 21 pp.
    • Merriam, C. H. 1883. Breeding of the harlequin duck (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS) in Newfoundland. Bull. Nuttall Ornithology Club 8:200.
    • Merz, N. 1991. 1991 Harlequin Duck survey for the lower Clark Fork drainage. Unpubl. field survey report
    • Michael, C. W. and E. Michael. 1922. An adventure with a pair of harlequin ducks in the Yosemite Valley. Auk 39:14-23.
    • Miller, V. E. 1988. Harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus): results of field survey in west-central Montana. 18 pp.
    • Miller, V. E. 1988. Harlequin ducks 1988 results of field surveys in west-central Montana. Unpublished report.
    • Miller, V.E. 1989. 1989 field survey report: harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus). Lower Clark Fork River drainage, west-central, Montana. Unpubl. rep. on file Mont. Nat. Heritage Prog., Helena. 48+ pp.
    • MILLER, V.E. 1989. FIELD SURVEY REPORT, HARLEQUIN DUCK (Histrionicus histrionicus): LOWER CLARK FORK DRAINAGE, WEST CENTRAL MONTANA. UNPUBLISHED, 47 PP.
    • Mittelhauser, G. 1991. Harlequin ducks at Acadia National Park and coastal Maine, 1988-1991. Island Research Center, College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, Maine. 67 pp.
    • Montana Bird Distribution Committee. 2012. P.D. Skaar's Montana bird distribution. 7th Edition. Montana Audubon, Helena, Montana. 208 pp. + foldout map.
    • Montana Bird Distribution Committee. 1996. P. D. Skaar's Montana Bird Distribution, Fifth Edition. Special Publication No. 3. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 130 pp.
    • Montevecchi, W. A., A. Bourget, J. Brazil, R. I. Goudie, A. E. Hutchinson, B. C. Johnson, P. Kehoe, P. Laporte, M. A. McCollough, R. Milton, and N. Seymour. 1995. National recovery plan for the Harlequin Duck in eastern North America. Prepared by the Harlequin Duck (eastern North Am. pop.) Recovery Team for the Recovery of Nationally Endangered Wildlife Committee. 31 pp.
    • Morneau, F. and R. Decarie. 1994. Status and distribution of Harlequin ducks in the Great Whale Watershed, Quebec. Pp. 6-7 in: Proc. 2nd ann. Harlequin duck symposium, March 13-15, 1994. Harlequin Duck Working Group. 22 pp. plus appendices.
    • Palmer, R. S. 1962. Handbook of North American birds. Volume 1. Loons through flamingos. Yale University Press, New Haven. 567 pp.
    • Pool, W. 1962. Feeding habits of the harlequin. Wildfowl Trust Ann. Rep. 13:126-129.
    • Rivera, Heniy. 1992. [5 "wildlife sighting reports" for harlequin duck sightings in 1992 by personnel of the Hungry' Horse ranger district.]
    • Robertson, G J., F. Cooke, R. I. Goudie, and W S. Boyd. 1998b. Moult speed predicts pairing success in male Harlequin Ducks. Animal Behavior 55: 1677-1 684.
    • Robertson, G J., F. Cooke, R. I. Goudie, and W. S. Boyd. 1998a. The timing of pair formation in Harlequin Ducks. Condor 100:551-555.
    • Rodway, M. S. 1998. Habitat use by Harlequin Ducks breeding in Hebron Fjord, Labrador. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:897-901.
    • Schirato, G. 1993. A preliminary status report of Harlequin ducks in Washington: 1993. Pp. 45-48 in: Cassirer, E. F., et al., (eds.), Status of Harlequin ducks in North America. Harlequin Duck Working Group. 83 pp.
    • Schirato, G. and F. Sharpe. 1992. Distribution and habitat of Harlequin Ducks in northwestern Washington. in Proceedings, Harlequin Duck Symposium, April 23-24, 1992. Unpubl. Rep., 45 pp. Idaho Dept. Fish and Game, Moscow, ID.
    • Skalski, J. R. 1995. Use of "bellwether" stations and rotational sampling designs to monitor harlequin duck abundance. Unpubl. rept. U. of Wash., Seattle. 19pp.
    • Smith, C, F. Cooke, and R. I. Goudie. 1998. Ageing Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus drakes using plumage characteristics. Wildfowl 49:245-248.
    • Smith, C. 1999. Banff National Park Harlequin Duck research project - 1998 progress report. Unpublished technical report, Heritage Resource Conservation, BanffNational Park, Alberta, Canada. 40 pp.
    • Smith, C. M., F. Cooke, G. J. Robertson, R. I. Goudie, and W. S. Boyd. 2000. Long-term pair bonds in Harlequin Ducks. Condor 102:201-205.
    • U.S. Forest Service. 1991. Forest and rangeland birds of the United States: Natural history and habitat use. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Agricultural Handbook 688. 625 pages.
    • Wallea R. L. and C. R. Groves. 1989. Distribution breeding biology and nesting habitat of harlequin ducks {Histrionicus histrionicus) in northern Idaho. Report on Challenge Cost Share Project. 40 pp.
    • Wallen, R. 1992. Annual variation in Harlequin Duck population size, productivity and fidelity in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. in Proceedings, Harlequin Duck Symposium, April 23-24, 1992. Unpubl. Rep., 45pp. Idaho Dept. Fish and Game, Moscow, ID.
    • Wallen, R. 1992. Harlequin duck status report 1992: Wyoming. Pp. 49-54 in: Cassirer, E. F., et al., (eds.), Status of Harlequin ducks in North America. Harlequin Duck Working Group. 83 pp.
    • Wallen, R. L. 1987. Annual brood survey for harlequin ducks in Grand Teton National Park. Grand Teton Nat. Pk., Resource Management. 15 pp.
    • Wallen, R. L. 1991. Annual variation in harlequin duck population size, productivity and fidelity to Grand Teton National Park. Off. of Science and Res. Mgmt. Grand Teton National Park, WY. 7 pp.
    • Wallen, R. L. and C. R. Groves. 1988. Status and distribution of harlequin ducks (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS) in northern Idaho. Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID. 34 pp.
    • Wallen, R. L. and C. R. Groves. 1989. Distribution, breeding biology and nesting habitat of harlequin ducks (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS) in northern Idaho. Report on Challenge Cost Share Project. 40 pp.
    • Wallen, R.L. 1987. Habitat utilization of harlequin ducks in Grand teton National Park. M.S. Thesis, Montana St. Univ., Bozeman. 67pp.
    • Wild Bird Society of Japan. 1989. Sea ducks: harlequin duck. P. 56 in: Sonobe, K. and J. W. Robinson, (eds.), A field guide to the birds of Japan. Kodansha International Ltd., Tokyo, New York, San Francisco.
    • Wright, K. G, G. J. Robertson, and R. I. Goudie. 1998. Evidence of spring staging and migration route of individual breeding Harlequin Ducks, Histrionicus histrionicus, in southern British Columbia. Canadian Field- Naturalist 1 12:518-519.
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Harlequin Duck — Histrionicus histrionicus.  Montana Field Guide.  Montana Natural Heritage Program and Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks.  Retrieved on October 1, 2014, from http://FieldGuide.mt.gov/speciesDetail.aspx?elcode=ABNJB15010
 
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