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Montana Field Guides

Quaking Aspen - Populus tremuloides

Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S5

Agency Status
USFWS:
USFS:
BLM:
MNPS Threat Rank:
C-value: 5

External Links






 
General Description
Tree 2–45 m with spreading branches. Bark smooth, pale, furrowed with age. Leaf blades broadly ovate to orbicular, truncate at the base, 2–8 cm long, pale beneath. Female catkins 4–10 cm long; stigmas 2. Capsules 4–6 mm long (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

Species Range
Montana Range

Year-round
 


Range Comments
Newfoundland, Labrador to southern Alaska; British Columbia through Alberta to New Jersey; Virginia, Missouri and the mountains of western United States and northern Mexico (Fowells 1965). The most widely distributed native tree in North America (Knotts, 1999).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 2238

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

 

(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)



Habitat
Along streams, wetlands, topographic depressions, cool slopes where the soil is somewhat moist; plains, valleys to lower subalpine (Lesica 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. BRIT Press. Fort Worth, TX).

References
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View Online Publication
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    • Ament, R.J. 1995. Pioneer Plant Communities Five Years After the 1988 Yellowstone Fires. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 216 p.
    • Bailey, A. W. and R. A. Wroe. 1974. Aspen invasion in a portion of the Alberta parklands. J. Range Management 32(1):29-32.
    • Baril, L.M. 2009. Change in deciduous woody vegetation, implications of increased willow (Salix spp.) growth for bird species diversity, and willow species composition in and around Yellowstone National Park's northern range. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 124 p.
    • Barnes, B. V. 1966. The clonal growth of American aspens. Ecology 47(3):439-447.
    • Barnes, B. V. 1969. Natural variation and delineation of clones of Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata in northern lower Michigan. Silvae Genetica 18:130-142.
    • Barnes, B. V. 1990. Genetic structure of trembling aspen. P. 29 .in K. Dimont, comp., Science in Glacier National Park. Glacier Natural History Assoc., West Glacier, MT. 52 pp.
    • Barnes, B. V. and W. H. Wagner, Jr. 1981. Michigan trees: a guide to the trees of Michigan and the Great Lakes region. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 384 p.
    • Brown, K. 2003. Understanding the role of biophysical setting in aspen persistence. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 83 p.
    • Burkholder, B.O. 2015. Seasonal distribution, winter habitat selection and willow utilization patterns of the Shiras Moose on the Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 262 p.
    • Burkholder, B.O., N.J. DeCesare, R.A. Garrot, and S.J. Boccadori. 2017. Heterogeneity and power to detect trends in Moose browse utilization of willow communities. ALCES 53:23-29.
    • Clark, D. 1991. The effect of fire on Yellowstone ecosystem seed banks. M.Sc. Thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman. 115 pp.
    • Cope, M.G. 1992. Distribution, habitat selection and survival of transplanted Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) in the Tobacco Valley, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 60 p.
    • Craighead, A.C. 2000. Pellet and scat analysis as indicators of present and past habitats. M.Sc. Theses. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 219 p.
    • Cripps, C.L., K. Liimatainen, T. Niskanen, B. Dima, R.F. Bishop, J.F. Ammarati. 2015. Intercontinental distributions of species of Cortinarius, subgenus Phlegmacium, associated with Populus in Western North America. Botany (October 2015). https://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2015-0089.
    • Culver, D.R. 1994. Floristic analysis of the Centennial Region, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman. 199 pp.
    • Davis, J. D. and R. F. Evert. 1968. Seasonal development of the secondary phloem in Populus tremuloides. Botanical Gazette 129(1):1-8.
    • DeByle, N. V. 1964. Detection of functional intraclonal aspen root connections by tracers and excavation. Forest Sci. 10(4):386-396.
    • Durham, D.A. 2008. Aspen response to prescribed fire in southwest Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 53 pp.
    • Eliasson, L. 1971. Growth regulators in Populus tremula IV Apical dominance and suckering in young plants. Physiol. Plant. 25:263-267.
    • Enk, E.A. 1999. Population dynamics of bighorn sheep on the Beartooth Wildlife Management Area, Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 177 p.
    • Farmer, R. E. Jr. 1962. Aspen root sucker formation and apical dominanace. Forest Sci. 8(4):403-410.
    • Fogelsong, M.L. 1974. Effects of fluorides on Peromyscus maniculatus in Glacier National Park. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 52 p.
    • Fowells, H. A, compiler. 1965. Silvics of the forest trees of the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 271. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 762 pp.
    • French, D. 1987. Department of Forestry, University of Minnesota, 306 Stakeman Hall, St. Paul, MN 55108. Personal communication with N. Eckhardt, TNC, MRO. August 1987.
    • Fuller, W.L. 1997. Elk management strategies for sustainable beef cattle enterprises. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montnaa State University. 92 p.
    • Glazier, R.J. 1971. Ecological and morphological relationships of subspecies of Peromyscus maniculatus near St. Mary, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 41 p.
    • Graham, S. A., R. P. Harrison Jr., and C.E. Westell Jr. 1963. Aspens: phoenix trees of the Great Lakes region. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. 272 pp.
    • Grigg, J.L. 2007. Gradients of predation risk affect distribution and migration of a large herbivore. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 94 p.
    • H., J. H. Researcher finds rare plant outside office. Petal Pusher: July/August 1995. p. 6.
    • Harniss, R. O. and D. L. Nelson. 1984. A severe epidemic of Marssonia leaf blight on quaking aspen in northern Utah. USDA Intermtn. For. Range Exp. Sta. Research Note INT-339.
    • Harting, A.L. 1985. Relationships between activity patterns and foraging strategies of Yellowstone Grizzly Bears. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 103 p.
    • Hodgson, J.R. 1970. Ecological distribution of Microtus montanus and Microtus pennsylvanicus in an area of geographic sympatry in southwestern Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 65 p.
    • Hurst, R.J. 2006. Use of satellite imagery to measure cover of prairie vegetation for the detection of change. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozemant, MT: Montana State University. 56 p.
    • Johnson, T. W. 1982. An analysis of pack and saddle stock grazing areas in the Bob Marshall Wilderness. M.Sc.Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 105 p.
    • Jones, W. W. 1901. Preliminary flora of Gallatin County. M.S. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State College. 78 pp.
    • Kelly, M.F. 1941. The effect of Fomes igniarius on Populus tremuloides in the Gallatin National Forest of Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 33 p.
    • Kimble, D.S. 2007. Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) ecology on forest service lands north of Yellowstone National Park. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 79 p.
    • Lesica, P., M.T. Lavin, and P.F. Stickney. 2012. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Fort Worth, TX: BRIT Press. viii + 771 p.
    • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.
    • Lovaas, A.L. 1957. Mule deer food habits and range use in the Little Belt Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 43 p.
    • Mack, J.A. 1988. Ecology of black bears on the Beartooth Face, south-central Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 119 p.
    • Mahony, C.P. 2005. Effects of native ectomycorrhizal fungi on aspen seedlings in greenhouse studies: inoculation methods, fertilizer regimes, and plant uptake of selected elements in smelter-impacted soils. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 193 p.
    • Maini, J. S. 1972. Silvics and ecology in Canada. Aspen: Symposium Proceedings. U. S. Dept. Agric. Forest Service General Technical Report, North Central For. Exp. Stat. NC-1:67-73.
    • Maini, J. S. and K. W. Horton. 1966. Vegetative propagation of Populus spp. I. Influence of temperature on formation and initial growth of aspen suckers. Can. J. of Botany 44: 1183-1189.
    • Maini, J.S. 1960. Invasion of grassland by Populus tremuloides in the northern great plains. (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan): University of Saskatchewan. 231 pp. Dissertation.
    • Martin, P.R. 1973. Ecology of skunkbrush sumac (Rhus trilobata Nutt.) in Montana with special reference to use by mule deer. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 97 p.
    • Martin, S.A. 1985. Ecology of the Rock Creek bighorn sheep herd, Beartooth Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 152 p.
    • Martinka, R.R. 1970. Structural characteristics and ecological relationships of male blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus (Say)) territories in southwestern Montana. Ph.D Dissertation. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 73 p.
    • Mosher, B.A. 2011. Avian community response to a mountain beetle epidemic. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 55 p.
    • Newlon, K.R. 2005. Demography of Lewis's Woodpecker, breeding bird densities, and riparian Aspen integrity in a grazed landscape. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 101 p.
    • Nyberg, H.E. 1980. Distribution, movements and habitat use of mule deer associated with the Brackett Creek winter range, Bridger Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 106 p.
    • Perala, D. A. 1981. Clone expansion and competition between quaking aspen and bigtooth aspen suckers after clearcutting. U. S. Dept. Agric. Forest Service Research Report, North Central For. Exp. Stat. NC-201. 4 p.
    • Perala, D.A. 1990. Populus tremuloides Michx. quaking aspen. In Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America: Volume 2, Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 555-569.
    • Picton, H.D. 1959. Use of vegetative types, migration, and hunter harvest of the Sun River elk herd, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 39 p.
    • Rens, E.N. 2003. Geographical analysis of the distribution and spread of invasive plants in the Gardiner Basin, MT. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 100 p.
    • Rosendahl, C.O. 1970. Trees and shrubs of the upper midwest. Minneapois, Minnesota, Univ. of Minnesota Press. 411 p.
    • Rouse, R.A. 1957. Elk food habits range use and movements, Gravelly Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 29 p.
    • Salix, J.L. 2004. Lichens and their distribution in Lewis and Clark Caverns State Park. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 74 p.
    • Sandberg, D. 1951. The regeneration of quaking aspen by root suckering. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota. 172 p. Thesis.
    • Saunders, J.K., Jr. 1954. A two-year investigation of the food habits and range use of the Rocky Mountain goat in the Crazy Mountains, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 22 p.
    • Schaedle, M. and K. C. Foote. 1971. Seasonal changes in the photosynthetic capacity of Populus tremuloides bark. Forest Sci. 17(3):308-313.
    • Schier, G. A. 1972. Apical dominance in multi-shoot cultures from aspen roots. Forest Sci. 18(20): 147-149.
    • Schier, G. A. 1973. Seasonal variation in sucker production from excised roots of Populus tremuloides and the role of endogenous auxin. Can. J. Forest Research 3:459-461.
    • Schier, G. A. 1981. Aspen regeneration. DeByle, N. V., ed. Symposium proceedings situation management of two intermountain species: aspen and coyotes. Vol. I:Aspen. Utah State Univ. p. 15-21.
    • Schier, G. A. and J. C. Zasada. 1973. Role of carbohydrate reserves in the development of root suckers in Populus tremuloides. Can. J. Forest Research 3:243-250.
    • Schier, G. A. and R. S. Johnston. 1971. Clonal variation in total nonstructural carbohydrates of trembling aspen roots in three Utah areas. Can. J. Forest Research 1:252-255.
    • Schleyer, B.O. 1983. Activity patterns of grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem and their reproductive behavior, predation and the use of carrion. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 130 p.
    • Selting, J.P. 1994. Seasonal use of agricultural lands by Mule Deer, White-Tailed Deer, and Pronghorn Antelope in Carter County, Montana. M.Sc. Thesis. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University. 66 p.
    • Shirley, H. L. 1931. Does light burning stimulate aspen suckers? J. Forestry 29(4): 524-525.
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Quaking Aspen — Populus tremuloides.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from