Black-tailed Prairie Dog - Cynomys ludovicianus
The Black-tailed Prairie Dog is the largest of the prairie dog species, weighing 700 to 1500 grams and measuring 28 to 33 centimeters from nose to tail (Burt and Grossenheider 1976, Hoogland and Foltz 1982). The overall color of the back and upper sides of the body and tail is generally dark cinnamon with buff coloring on the underside (Anderson 1972, Burt and Grossenheider 1976, Hall 1981). The distal third of the tail is black or dark brown (Hall 1981). They molt twice per year, prior to summer and prior to winter. The skull is about 60 centimeters long, with 22 teeth (Burt and Grossenheider 1976).
Black-tailed Prairie Dogs are easily separated from the similar White-tailed Prairie Dogs by the black color of the distal one-third of the tail tip. The Black-tailed Prairie Dog also lacks the distinctive dark face patches of the White-tailed Prairie Dog. Black-tailed Prairie Dogs are also found in more dense colonies than are White-tailed Prairie Dogs. Features of the skull and teeth can also be used to separate the two species of prairie dogs in Montana (Foreseman 2001).
Black-tailed Prairie Dogs may also be confused with a number of ground squirrel (Spermophilus) species, but are distinguished by their much more robust body conformation and relatively short tail and their habit of living in much denser colonies with more developed burrow systems.
Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations:
(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version)
Map Help and Descriptions
(Records associated with a range of dates are excluded from time charts)
Black-tailed Prairie Dogs are not known to migrate, but young animals, primarily males, disperse from their natal burrows in May or June shortly after emerging from hibernation (Garrett and Franklin 1988). Males also disperse from their breeding territory after 2 years to avoid inbreeding with their two year old daughters (Hoogland 1995). Most dispersers remain in the home colony (Hoogland 1995), but others move up to 6 miles in search of new colonies (Knowles 1984).
Black-tailed Prairie Dog colonies are found on flat, open grasslands and shrub/grasslands with low, relatively sparse vegetation. The most frequently occupied habitat in Montana is dominated by western wheatgrass, blue grama and big sagebrush (MFWP 2002). Colonies are associated with silty clay loams, sandy clay loams, and loams (Thorp 1949, Bonham and Lerwick 1976, Klatt and Hein 1978, Agnew et al. 1986) and fine to medium textured soils are preferred (Merriam 1902, Thorp 1949, Koford 1958), presumably because burrows and other structures tend to retain their shape and strength better than in coarse, loose soils. Encroachment into sands (e.g., loamy fine sand) occurs if the habitat is needed for colony expansion (Osborn 1942).
Shallow slopes of less than 10% are preferred (Koford 1958, Hillman et al. 1979, Dalsted et al. 1981), presumably in part because such areas drain well and are only slightly prone to flooding. By colonizing areas with low vegetative stature, Black-tailed Prairie Dogs often select areas with past human (as well as animal) disturbance. In Montana, colonies tended to be associated with areas heavily used by cattle, such as water tanks and long-term supplemental feeding sites (Licht and Sanchez 1993, FaunaWest 1998).
Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
- Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
How Associations Were Made
We associated the use and habitat quality (high, medium, or low) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for
vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
- Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2001, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
- Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species’ range and habitat requirements;
- Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point database associated with each ecological system;
- Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of “observations versus availability of habitat”.
Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.
In general, species were associated as using an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.
However, species were not associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if
point observations were associated with that system.
High, medium, and low habitat quality was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species in the literature.
The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignments of habitat quality.
If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact Bryce Maxell at firstname.lastname@example.org
or (406) 444-3655.
Suggested Uses and Limitations
Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.
These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: http://mtnhp.org/requests/default.asp
) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.
Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.
Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.
Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).
Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species’ known geographic range.
- Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. 289 p.
- Dobkin, D. S. 1992. Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34. Missoula, MT.
- Foresman, K.R. 2001. The wild mammals of Montana. Special Publication No. 12. Lawrence, KS: The American Society of Mammalogists. 278 p.
- Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998. Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates. Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 1302 p.
- Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young. 1999. Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32. 72 p.
- Maxell, B.A. 2000. Management of Montana’s amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species. Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1. Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana. 161 p.
- Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles of Montana. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.
- Commonly Associated with these Ecological Systems
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Sparse and Barren Systems
- Occasionally Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Open Water / Wetland and Riparian Systems
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Black-tailed Prairie Dogs prefer grasses, focusing their herbivory on leaf bases (Koford 1958, Hansen and Gold 1977, Uresk 1984, Krueger 1986). The proportion of other forage types in the diet varies with season, location on town, and vegetative composition (Koford 1958, Hansen and Gold 1977, Uresk 1984, Krueger 1986, Summers and Linder 1978, Bonham and Lerwick 1976, Fagerstone et al. 1981). A 950-gram animal consumes roughly 2.2 pounds of dry laboratory feed per month, or 26.4 pounds per year (Hansen and Cavender 1973 in Hansen and Gold 1977). In terms of forage consumption, Merriam (1902) and Koford (1958) estimated the number of Black-tailed Prairie Dogs equivalent to one animal unit (A.U.) to be 256 and 335, respectively. They apparently do not require free water (Merriam 1902, Bintz 1984). Water is obtained from green grass and forb shoots (green grasses contain about 68 to 77% water) (Bintz 1984), and, in winter, from succulents such as Opuntia spp., which are about 80% water (Summers and Linder 1978, Fagerstone et al. 1981).
Disperal is heavily biased toward 1 to 2 year old males (Hoogland 1995). Intercolony dispersers may move up to 5 kilometers (Garrett and Franklin 1988). Dispersal was verified in 2 of 1200 marked animals in South Dakota: 1 moved 1 kilometer, the other 2 kilometers (Hoogland 1995). Other species are important in prairie ecosystem--Burrowing Owls, Mountain Plovers, and Black-footed Ferrets--and depend on Black-tailed Prairie Dog towns.
General information on Black-tailed Prarie Dogs is available.
The basic family group (the coterie) comprises one adult male (at least 2 years old), three or four adult females, and several yearlings or juveniles (Hoogland and Foltz 1982). Large coteries with two or more males occasionally occur. Females remain in their coterie for life, whereas males usually leave within 12 to 14 months after weaning. The coterie system deteriorates in spring during gestation and lactation (King 1959). An organizational level higher than the coterie is the ward (King 1959), a town subdivision described according to topographic features.
Nonexpanding colonies fluctuate significantly between years under normal conditions (King 1959, Koford 1958, O'Meilia et al. 1982, Powell, unpubl. mans.). Spring counts revealed 252 Black-tailed Prairie Dogs in one year and 92 four years later (Hoogland et al. 1988). Over a 10-year period, the number of weaned juveniles ranged from 4 to 133. Expanding colonies can grow enormously in a few years, increasing population levels 30 to 295% (Hansen and Gold 1977, Garrett and Franklin 1988, Reading et al. 1989). Human control efforts and plague cause substantial fluctuations in population size (see later sections for detailed discussions). In areas where immigration of new individuals is successful, genetic variability within a population is not decreased by large population reductions (Daley 1992).
Under normal conditions, without catastrophic factors operating (e.g., plague or severe predation), rates of mortality vary substantially from year to year, both within and between cohorts (King 1959, Koford 1958, Hoogland et al. 1988). First year survival averaged 50 to 56% for males and females but ranged from 32 to 79% over a 5-year period (Hoogland et al. 1988). Mortality levels drop greatly after the first year, with males typically living to 3 to 4 years and females to 4 to 5 years. King (1955, in Koford 1958) observed 44% mortality in one population, with 36% mortality in the juvenile cohort followed by 22% mortality in the same cohort the following year.
Sylvatic plague is extremely important where it occurs. Sylvatic (bubonic) plague is an exotic disease that can kill more than 99% of prairie dogs in a colony (Cully 1989). The plague bacteria (Yersinia pestis)
is transmitted animal-to-animal by infected fleas or contact with infected blood or tissue. The significance of plague in range-wide Black-tailed Prairie Dog mortality is unclear, though experts agree that where plague occurs it is extremely important in population dynamics (Cully 1992, Brown 1992). Plague may be introduced into a colony by other species or by dispersing Black-tailed Prairie Dogs, which bring plague-ridden fleas into a colony. Black-tailed Prairie Dogs with plague in their bloodstream are very unlikely to introduce plague because the infected animals die quickly (Cully 1992).
Historically, the major predators on Black-tailed Prairie Dogs were primarily the Black-footed Ferret and the Badger (Bailey 1905 in Koford 1958, Koford 1958, Stromberg et al. 1983, Cully 1989). Raptors, snakes, Coyotes, foxes, and Bobcats all prey upon them, but usually at low rates (Koford 1958, Cully 1989, Powell unpubl. mans.). Starvation associated with drought and severe winters and interactions between old age and other mortality factors contribute to mortality (Koford 1958).
Colonies expand under force of crowding associated with high survival rates and lack of forage (Koford 1958, Garrett et al. 1982). Off-colony attributes facilitating expansion include high forage availability, forage quality, and deep soils. Inter-colony dispersal typically occurs from colonies that have reached carrying capacity, though emigration from young expanding colonies does occur (Garrett et al. 1982, Garrett and Franklin 1988). Dispersal occurs in the spring amongst healthy yearling males and adult females, which disperse an average 2.4 kilometers (Garrett and Franklin 1988). In Nebraska, Steuter (1992) found that Black-tailed Prairie Dogs attempting to establish new colonies were often killed by Badgers. Little is known of the process of new colony initiation. In mixed prairie, they may locate and attempt to colonize spots of disturbed land amidst dense grassland (Steuter 1992).
Average colony size is typically 20 to 60 hectares, though colonies of less than 10 hectares to complexes of several hundred hectares are not uncommon (Bishop and Culbertson 1976, Cheatheam 1977, Clark et al. 1982, Knowles 1986). One C. leucurus
colony in Utah covered 958 hectares (Clark et al. 1982). Merriam (1902) reported a Texas Black-tailed Prairie Dog colony covering 25,000 square miles. Average burrow density varies widely, from 9 per hectare to at least 250 per hectare (Bishop and Culbertson 1976, Clark et al. 1982, Reading et al. 1989). Thirty to 100 burrows per hectare is common. The number of burrow entrances per hectare also varies substantially, with 50 to 123 a typical range (King 1959). Density of Black-tailed Prairie Dogs fluctuates within and between years according to colony demographics, environmental conditions, forage availability, and soil and/or vegetation sites within towns (Koford 1958, Powell in progress). Typical adult densities are about 12 per hectare (Koford 1958, King 1959, Powell in progress). After young are weaned (and can be counted aboveground), densities of all age classes totaled typically range from 5 to 30 animals per hectare (Koford 1958, Hansen and Gold 1977, Knowles 1982 in Knowles 1986, O'Meilia et al. 1982). In three consecutive years, King (1959) noted densities in July on the same site to change from 22 to 14 to 41 animals per hectare.
In a study of 18 burrow systems Sheets et al. (1971) found the burrows ranging from 3 to 14 feet deep and 13 to 109 feet long, with tunnel diameter of 4 to 5 inches. Passageway plugs are used to inhibit predators, to compartmentalize and block off waste, or when the burrow system is under remodeling (Smith 1958 in Burns et al. 1989, Sheets et al. 1971, Martin et al. 1984, Burns et al. 1989).
The breeding system is harem-polygynous, with most females copulating with one male and males with several females (Hoogland and Foltz 1982). Females achieve estrous as early as the second week in March in Montana (Knowles 1987). Females are in estrous for several hours of only one day per year (Hoogland and Foltz 1982). Gestation averages 35 days (Hoogland 1985, Knowles 1987). Though almost all adult females achieve estrous and many become pregnant, juvenile mortality is high with only one half of copulating females weaning a litter (Hoogland and Foltz 1982). Minimum breeding age is usually two years for both sexes (Hoogland 1985, Knowles 1987). Litter size typically averages about 4 (Knowles 1987) (3 in yearlings, 5 in older females) (Koford 1958).
Vegetation condition does not necessarily affect litter size, with adults producing an average litter size of 4.3 on "fair" rangeland and 5.7 on "severely depleted" rangeland (Koford 1958), but relatively large and small litters may follow high and low rainfall, respectively. Individual females produce one litter per year. Pups stay underground until weaned (Hoogland 1985). Pups appear above ground in about 5 to 8 weeks (mid-May to early June in Montana). Due to forage availability and stress associated with crowding, the number of weaned juveniles increases as the number of adults and yearlings decreases, and vice-versa (Hoogland et al. 1988).
Black-tailed Prairie Dogs are classified as a Species of Concern in Montana due to declines in abundance and a variety of threats to the population. Prairie dogs are managed under the Conservation Plan for Black-tailed and White-tailed Prairie Dogs in Montana (Montana Prairie Dog Working Group 2002)
. Please consult this plan for details concerning prairie dog management in Montana. Black-tailed Prairie Dogs are also classified as Vertebrate Pests by the Montana Department of Agriculture.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View WorldCat Record View Online Publication
Do you know of a citation we're missing?
- [PRESI] Powder River Eagle Studies Incorporated. 1998b. Spring Creek Mine 1997 wildlife monitoring studies. Powder River Eagle Studies Incorporated. Gillete, WY.
- Agnew, W., D. W. Uresk and R. M. Hansen. 1986. Flora and fauna associated with prairie dog colonies and adjacent ungrazed mixed-grass prairie in western South Dakota. Journal of Range Management 39:135-9.
- Albers, Mark., 1995, Draft Biological Assessment: Tongue River Basin Project. May 1995. In Tongue River Basin Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix B. June 1995
- Anderson, S. 1972. Mammals of Chihuahua. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 148(2).
- Anthony, A. and D. Foreman. 1951. Observations on the reproductive cycle of the black-tailed prairie dog (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS). Physiol. Zool. 24:242-8.
- Apa, A. D., D. W. Uresk, and R. L. Linder. 1990. Black-tailed prairie dog populations one year after treatment with rodenticides. Great Basin Nat. 50:107-113.
- Bailey, V. 1905. A biological survey of Texas. N. American Fauna 25.
- Bauer, Delane, 2002, 2002 Four Seasons Wildlife Study. Savage Mine Report, Richland County, Montana.
- Bintz, G. L. 1984. Water balance, water stress, and the evolution of seasonal torpor in ground-dwelling sciurids. Pp. 142-65 in J. O. Murie and G. R. Michener (eds.). The Biology of Ground-dwelling Sciurids. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE.
- Bishop, N. G. and J. L. Culbertson. 1976. Decline of prairie dog towns in southwestern North Dakota. Journal of Range Management 29:217-20.
- Bonham, C. D., and A. Lerwick. 1976. Vegetation changes induced by prairie dogs on shortgrass range. Journal of Range Management 29:221-225.
- Brown, Ted. 1992. Environmental Specialist, New Mexico Environmental Improvement Division.
- Bureau of Land Management. 1979?. Habitat management plan prairie dog ecosystems. USDI, BLM, Montana State Office. Wildlife Habitat Area MT-02-06-07-S1. 61 pp.
- Burns, J.A., D. L. Flath and T. W. Clark. 1989. On the structure and function of white-tailed prairie dog burrows. Great Basin Nat. 49:517-524.
- Burt, W. H., and R. P. Grossenheider. 1976. A field guide to the mammals. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 289 pp.
- Cain, S. A. et. al. 1971. Predator control - 1971. Report to the Council on Environmental Quality and the Department of the Interior by the Advisory Committee on Predator Control. Institute for Environmental Quality, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. 207 pp.
- Cameron, E. S. 1908. Observations on the golden eagle in Montana. Auk 25:251-268.
- Carpenter, J. R. 1940. The grassland biome. Ecological Monographs 10:617-683.
- Ceballos-G., G. y D. Wilson. 1985. Cynomys mexicanus. Mamm. Species, 248: 1-3.
- Cheatham, C. K. 1977. Density and distribution of the black-tailed prairie dog in Texas. Texas J. Science 29:33-40.
- Chesser, R. 1979. Genetic variablility of CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS in New Mexico. Final report to New Mexico Game and Fish Department, Santa Fe, NM.
- Clark, T. W., R. S. Hoffmann, and C. F. Nadler. 1971. Cynomys leucurus. Mamm. Species 7:1-4.
- Clark, T. W., T. M. Campbell III, D. G. Socha and D. E. Casey. 1982. Prairie dog colony attributes and associated vertebrate species. Great Basin Naturalist 1982:?
- Clark, Tim W., Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, and Biota Research and Consulting, Inc., Jackson, Wyoming., 1986, Annotated prairie dog bibliography: 1973 to 1986. July 1986.
- Clippinger, N. W. 1989. Habitat suitability index models: black-tailed prairie dog. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 82(10.156). 21 pp.
- Cooper, S. V. and B. L. Heidel. 1999. Biodiversity and representativeness of research natural areas on national wildlife refuges in Montana, designated areas within Benton Lake, Charles M. Russell, Lake Mason, Medicine Lake, and Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuges: final report. Unpublished report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 63 pp. plus appendices.
- Cooper, S.V., C. Jean, and P. Hendricks. 2001. Biological survey of a prairie landscape in Montana’s glaciated plains. Report to the Bureau of Land Management. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 24 pp. plus appendices.
- Coppock, D. L., J. E. Ellis, J. K. Detling and M. I. Dyer. 1983. Plant-herbivore interactions in a North American mixed-grass prairie. Part II, Responses of bison to modification of vegetation by prairie dogs. Oecologia 56:10-5.
- Coppock, D. L., J. K. Detling, J. E. Ellis, and M. I. Dyer. 1983. Plant-herbivore interactions in a North American mixed-grass prairie. Part I, Effects of black-tailed prairie dogs on intraseasonal aboveground plant biomass and nutrient dynamics and plant species diversity. Oecologia 56:1-9.
- Cully, J. F., Jr. 1989. Plague in prairie dog ecosystems: importance for black-footed ferret management. Pp. 47-55 in T. W. Clark, D. Hinckley and T. Rich (eds.). The prairie dog ecosystem: managing for biological diversity. Montana Bureau of Land Management Wildl. Tech. Bull. No. 2, Billings, MT. BLM-MT-PT-89-004-4352.
- Cully, J. F., Jr. 1992. Wildlife Biologist, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
- Daley, J. G. 1992. Population reductions and genetic variability in black-tailed prairie dogs. Journal of Wildlife Management 56:212-20.
- Dalsted, K. J., et al. 1981. Application of remote sensing to prairie dog management. Journal of Range Management 34:218-23.
- ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1976, Colstrip 10 x 20 Area wildlife and wildlife habitat annual monitoring report, 1976. Proj. 135-85-A. December 31, 1976.
- ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1977, Colstrip 10 x 20 Area wildlife and wildlife habitat annual monitoring report, 1977. Proj. 164-85-A. December 31, 1977.
- ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1979, Annual wildllife report of the Colstrip Area for 1978. Proj. 195-85-A. April 6, 1979.
- ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1979, Annual wildllife report of the Colstrip Area for 1979, including a special raptor research study. Proj. 216-85-A. March 1, 1980.
- Fagerstone, K. A. and D. E. Biggins. 1986. Comparison of capture-recapture and visual count indices of prairie dog densities in black-footed ferret habitat. Great Basin Naturalist Mem. 8:94-8.
- Fagerstone, K. A., H. P. Tietjen and O. Williams. 1981. Seasonal variation in the diet of black-tailed prairie dogs. Journal of Mammalogy 62:820-4.
- FaunaWest Wildlfife Consultants, Boulder, MT., 1997, Draft Environmental Assessment for management of black-tailed prairie dogs at Fort William Henry Harrison. June 1997.
- Faunawest Wildlife Consultants. 1998. Status of the Black-tailed and White-tailed Prairie Dog in Montana. Prepared for Montana Department of Fish, WIldlife & Parks.
- Federal Register, 25 March 1999. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-day Finding for a Petition To List the Black-Tailed Prairie Dog as Threatened. Volume 64, Number 57: 50 CFR Part 17. Proposed Rules: pp. 14424-14428.
- Flath, D. L. 1978. At home with the prairie dog. Montana Outdoors. 9(2):3-8.
- Flath, Dennis L., 1979, Nongame species of special interest or concern: Mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes. January 1979.
- Foresman, K. R. 2001. The Wild Mammals of Montana. American Society of Mammologists, Special Publication No. 12: Lawrence, KS, 278 pp.
- Garrett, M. G., and W. L. Franklin. 1988. Behavioral ecology of dispersal in the black-tailed prairie dog. J. Mamm. 69:236-250.
- Garrett, M. G., J. L. Hoogland, and W. L. Franklin. 1982. Demographic differences between an old and a new colony of black-tailed prairie dogs (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS LUDOVICIANUS). Amer. Midl. Nat. 108:51-9.
- Goodwin, H. T. 1995. Pliocene-Pleistocene biogeographic history of prairie dogs, genus CYNOMYS (Sciuridae). Journal of Mammalogy 76:100-122.
- Hall, E. Raymond. 1981. The Mammals of North America, Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.
- Hansen, R. M. and B. R. Cavender. 1973. Food intake and digestion by black-tailed prairie dogs under laboratory conditions. Acta Theriologica 18:191-200.
- Hansen, R. M. and I. K. Gold. 1977. Blacktail prairie dogs, desert cottontails and cattle trophic relations on shortgrass range. J. Rng. Mgmt. 30(3):210-214.
- Hillman, C. N., R. L. Linder, and R. B. Dahlgren. 1979. Prairie dog (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS) distribution in areas inhabited by black-footed ferrets (MUSTELA NIGRIPES). Am. Midl. Nat. 102:185-7.
- Hoffmann, R. S. and D. L. Pattie. 1968. A guide to Montana mammals: identification, habitat, distribution, and abundance. Univ. Mont., Missoula. 133 pp.
- Hoffmeister, D. F. 1986. Mammals of Arizona. Univ. Arizona Press and Arizona Game and Fish Dept. 602 pp.
- Hoogland, J. L. 1996. Cynomys ludovicianus. American Society of Mammalogists, Lawrence, KS. Mammalian Species No. 535:1-10.
- Hoogland, J. L. 1985. Infanticide in prairie dogs: lactating females kill offspring of close kin. Science 230:1037-40.
- Hoogland, J. L. 1995. The black-tailed prairie dog. Social life of a burrowing mammal. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. xiv. plus 557 pp.
- Hoogland, J. L. and D. W. Folts. 1982. Variance in male and female reproductive success in a harem-polygynous mammal, the black-tailed prairie dog (Sciuridae: CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 11:155-63.
- Hoogland, J. L. et. al. 1988. Demography and population dynamics of prairie dogs. Pp. 18-22 in D. W. Uresk, G. L. Schenbeck and R. Cefkin. (technical coordinators). 8th Great Plains Wildlife Damage Control Workshop Proceedings, Fort Collins, CO. USFS GTR RM-154. 231 pp.
- Humphris, Michael., 1990, Wildlife Monitoring Report. Spring Creek Coal Company 1990 Mining Annual Report. Appendix I. April 11, 1990.
- Humphris, Michael., 1991, Wildlife Monitoring Report. Spring Creek Coal Company 1991 Mining Annual Report. Appendix I. April 11, 1991.
- Humphris, Michael., 1993, Wildlife Monitoring Report. Spring Creek Coal Company 1993 Mining Annual Report. Appendix I. April 11, 1993.
- Humphris, Michael., 1994, Wildlife Monitoring Report. Spring Creek Coal Company 1994 Mining Annual Report. Appendix I. April 1994.
- King. J. A. 1955. Social behaivor, social organization, and population dynamics in a black-tailed prairie dog town in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Univ. Mich. Contrib. Lab. Vert. Viol. 67:1-123.
- Klatt, L. E. and D. Hein. 1978. Vegetative differences among active and abandoned towns of black-tailed prairie dogs (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS). Journal of Range Mangement 31:315-7.
- Knapp, S. J. 1977. Birney-Decker wildlife study. Montana Dept. Fish and Game and BLM.
- Knowles, C. J. 1987. Reproductive ecology of black-tailed prairie dogs in Montana. Great Basin Nat. 47:202-206.
- Knowles, C. J. 1982. Habitat affinity, populations, and control of black-tailed prairie dogs on the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Montana, Missoula. 171 pp.
- Knowles, C. J. 1985. Observations on prairie dog dispersal in Montana. Prairie Nat. 17:33-40.
- Knowles, C. J. 1986. Population recovery of black-tailed prairie dogs following control with zinc phosphide. J. Range Manage. 39:249-251.
- Knowles, C. J. 1986. Some relationships of black-tailed prairie dogs to livestock grazing. Great Basin Naturalist 46:198-203.
- Knowles, C. J. 1988. An evaluation of shooting and habitat alteration for control of black-tailed prairie dogs. Pp 53-56 in: Eighth Great Plains Wildlife Damage Control Workshop Proceedings. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-154. Fort Collins, CO.
- Knowles, C. J., and P. R. Knowles. 1991. Northern pocket gopher use of a black-tailed prairie dog colony following twelve years of no cattle grazing.
- Knowles, C. J., C. J. Stoner, and S. P. Gieb. 1982. Selective use of black-tailed prairie dog towns by mountain plovers. Condor 84:71-74.
- Koford, C. B. 1958. Prairie dogs, whitefaces and blue gramma. Wildl. Monogr. 3:6-78.
- Kolbe, J.J., B.E. Smith, and D.M. Browning. 2002. Burrow use by Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) at a Black-tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) town in southwestern South Dakota. Herpetological Review 33(2):95-99.
- Krueger, K. 1986. Feeding relationships among bison, pronghorn, and prairie dogs: an experimental analysis. Ecology 67:760-70.
- Licht, D. S. and K. D. Sanchez. 1993. Association of black-tailed prairie dog colonies with cattle point attractants in the northern Great Plains. Great Basin Nat. 53:385-389.
- Linder, Rayond L., and Conrad N. Hillman, 1973, Proceedings of the Black-footed Ferret and Prairie Dog Workshop, September 4-6, 1973. Rapid City, South Dakota.
- Martin, S. J., M. H. Schroeder, and H. Tietjen. 1984. Burrow plugging by prairie dogs in response to Siberian polecats. Great Basin Naturalist 44:447-9.
- Merriam, C. H. 1902. The prairie dog of the Great Plains. Pp. 257-70 in USDA Yearbook Agriculture for 1901, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
- Miller, S. D., and J. F. Cully, Jr. 2001. Conservation of Black-tailed Prairie Dogs (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS). Journal of Mammalogy 82:889-893.
- Minta, S. C. and T. W. Clark. Habitat suitability analysis of potential translocation sites for black-footed ferrets in northcentral Montana. Pp. 29-45 in T. W. Clar, D. Hinckley and T. Rich (eds.). The prairie dog ecosystem: managing for biological diversity. Montana Bureau of Land Management Wildl. Tech. Bull. No. 2., Billings, MT. BLM-MT-PT-89-004-4352.
- Mont. Dept. of Agriculture., 1985, Controlling burrowing rodents with burrow fumigants. Inform. Bul. No. 6.
- Mont. Dept. of Agriculture., 1985?, Prairie dog control bulletin.
- Montana Dept. of State Lands. U.S. Office of Surface Mining., 1985, Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Consolidation Coal Company. CX Ranch Mine, Big Horn County, Montana.
- Montana Prairie Dog Working Group. 2002. Conservation Plan for Black-tailed and White-tailed Prairie Dogs in Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Helena MT. 51 pp.
- Montana Sage Grouse Work Group, 2000???, Management plan and covservation strategies for sage grouse in Montana
- Monty Sullins., 1990, Use of chlorophacinone treated bait for management of black-tailed prairie dogs in Montana. December 1990.
- Munson, J. R. 1979 Wibaux-Beach wildlife baseline study-game species. BLM, Miles City, MT.
- O'Meilia, M. E., F. L. Knopf, and J. C. Lewis. 1982. Some consequences of competition between prairie dogs and beef cattle. Journal of Range Management 35:580-5.
- Oldemeyer, J.L., D.E. Biggins, B.J. Miller, and R. Crete, editors. 1993. Proc. of the symposium on the management of prairie dog complexes for the reintroduction of the black-footed ferret. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep., No. 13. 96 pp.
- Osborn, B. 1942. Prairie dogs in shinnery (oak scrub) savannah. Ecology 23:110-5.
- Pizzimenti, J., and G. D. Collier. 1975. Cynomys parvidens. Mammalian Species 52:1-3.
- Pizzimenti, J.J. and R.S. Hoffmann. 1973. CYNOMYS GUNNISONI.Mammalian Species, 25:1-4.
- Powder River Eagle Studies, Inc., Gillette, WY., 1995, Spring Creek Mine 1994 Wildlife Monitoring Studies. 4/94 to 4/95. Spring Creek Coal Company 1995 Mining Annual Report. Appendix I. May 1995.
- Powder River Eagle Studies, Inc., Gillette, WY., 1996, Spring Creek Mine 1995 Wildlife Monitoring Studies. Spring Creek Coal Company 1995-1996 Mining Annual Report. Vol. I, App. I. May 1996.
- Powder River Eagle Studies, Inc., Gillette, WY., 1997, Spring Creek Mine 1996 Wildlife Monitoring Studies. February 1997.
- Powder River Eagle Studies, Inc., Gillette, WY., 1999, Spring Creek Mine 1998 Wildlife Monitoring. March 1999.
- Powell, K. L. 1992. Prairie dog distribution, habitat characteristics, and population monitoring in Kansas: implications for black-footed ferret recovery. M.S. Thesis, Kansas State Univ. 131 pp.
- Reading, R.P., S.R. Beissinger, J.J. Grenston, and T.W. Clark. 1989. Attributes of black-tailed prairie dog colonies in northcentral Montana, with management recommendations for the conservation of biodiversity. Pages 13-28 in T.W. Clark, D. Hinckley, and T. Rich (editors). The prairie dog ecosystem: managing for biodiversity. Montana Bureau of Land Management, Wildlife Technical Bulletin no. 2.
- Reid, F. 2006. Peterson Field Guide to Mammals of North America, 4th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston and New York, 608 pp.
- Roy F. Weston, Inc., Bozeman, MT., and Western Technology and Engineering, Inc., Helena, MT., 1989, Stillwater PGM Resources East Boulder Project Addendum F: Supplemental Biological Studies. Final Report. December 1989.
- Schladweiler, Philip, and John P. Weigand., 1983, Relationships of endrin and other chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds to wildlife in Montana, 1981-1982. September 1983.
- Sheets, R. G., R. L. Linder and R. B. Dahlgren. 1971. Burrow systems of prairie dogs in South Dakota. Journal of Mammalogy 52:451-3.
- Smith, R. E. 1958. Natural history of the prairie dog in Kansas. Kansas University Museum of Natural History State Biol. Surv. Misc. Publ. No. 16. 36 pp.
- Spring Creek Coal Company., 1992, Wildlife Monitoring Report. Spring Creek Coal Company 1992 Mining Annual Report. Appendix I.
- Stromberg, Mark R., et al. 1983. Black-footed ferret prey requirements: An energy balance estimate. Journal of Wildlife Management. 47(1):67-73.
- Sullins, M. 1977. Evaluation of prebaiting for improving bait acceptance by black-tailed prairie dogs. Mont. Dept. of Livestock Rep., Helena. 2 pp.
- Sullins, M. 1979. Efficacy and cost of cyclone seeders, motorcycle dispensers, and hand baiting for controlling black-tailed prairie dogs. Mont. Dept. of Livestock Rep., Helena. 8 pp.
- Sullins, M. 1980. A field comparison of strychnine, zinc phosphide and 1080 grain bits for controlling black-tailed prairie dogs. Mont. Dept. of Livestock Rep., Helena. 6 pp.
- Sullins, M. 1980. Efficacy of strychnine and zinc phosphide baits for controlling black-tailed prairie dogs. Mont. Dept. of Livestock Rep., Helena. 3 pp.
- Sullins, M. 1981. A field comparison of 0.20, 0.35, and 0.50 percent strychnine grain baits for controlling black-tailed prairie dogs. Mont. Dept. of Agriculture, Tech. Rep. 81-4, Helena. 4 pp.
- Sullins, M. 1982. Efficacy of diphacinone baits for controlling black-tailed prairie dogs. Mont. Dept. of Agriculture, Tech. Rep. 82-6, Helena.
- Summers, C. A. and R. L. Linder. 1978. Food habits of the black-tailed prairie dog in western South Dakota. Journal of Range Management 31:134-6.
- Swick, C. D. 1978. Reproduction of black-tailed prairie dogs with reference to grain acceptance in southwest Montana. Mont. Dept. of Livestock Rep. 2 pp.
- Thorp, J. 1949. Effects of certain animals that live in soils. Scientific Monthly 68:180-91.
- Tileston, J.V., and R.R. Lechleitner. 1966. Some comparisons of the black-tailed and white-tailed prairie dogs in north-central Colorado. Am. Midl. Nat. 75: 292-316.
- Turman, Hop. 1992. Biologist (not official title), USDA-ADC.
- U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service., 1984, Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, Montana: Draft Environmental Impact Statement.
- U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service., 1985, Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, Montana: Final Environmental Impact Statement.
- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1980. Management of Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge. Draft. REPRINT
- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2000. 12-month finding for a petition to list the black-tailed prairie dog as threatened. Federal Register 65(24):5476-5488.
- Uresk, D. W. 1984. Black-tailed prairie dog food habits and forage relationships in western South Dakota. J. Rng. Mngmt. 37(4):325-329.
- USDI Bureau of Indian Affairs. Billings Area Office, Billings, MT., 1981, Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Crow/Shell Coal Lease Crow Indian Reservation, Montana. February 1981.
- USDI Bureau of Land Management. 1982. Blacktailed prairie dog control/management in Phillips Resource Area. Programmatic environmental assessment. Lewiston District, Phillips Resource Area, Malta. 40 pp.
- USDI Bureau of Land Management. 1982. Programmatic environmental assessment, blacktailed prairie dog control/management in Phillips Resource Area. Lewistown District, Phillips Resource Area, Malta. 121 pp.
- Van Pelt, Bill. 1992. Biologist (not official title), Arizona Game and Fish.
- Vosburgh, T. C., and L. R. Irby. 1998. Effects of recreational shooting on prairie dog colonies. The Journal of Wildlife Management 62:363-372.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1987, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1987 Field Season. December 1987.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1988, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1988 Field Season. December 1988.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1989, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1989 Field Season. December 1989.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1991, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1990 Field Season. September 1991.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1992, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1991 Field Season. December 1992.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1993, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; 1993 Field Season. April 1993.
- Waage, Bruce C., 2002, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana. 2001 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 2000 - November 30, 2001. Febr. 26, 2002.
- Wedin, D. 1992. Ecologist, Department Ecol. Behav. Biol., Univerity of Minnesota.
- Western Energy Co., Colstrip, MT. Unpub., 1983, Western Energy Company's Application for Amendment to Surface Mining Permit NO. 8003, Area B: sections 7, 8, 17,18 T1N R41E, sections 12, 13 T1N R40E, Mining Expansion. March 1983.
- Western Energy Co., Colstrip, MT., 1981, Western Energy Company's Application for a Surface Mining Permit: Area C - Block 1. Vol. 1. May 1981.
- Additional Sources of Information Related to "Mammals"