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Gray Partridge - Perdix perdix

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Exotic Species (not native to Montana)

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: SNA

Agency Status
USFWS:
USFS:
BLM:
FWP Conservation Tier: 4
PIF:


 

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Copyright by: The Macaulay Library at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, all rights reserved.
 
General Description
Gray Partridge (Hungarian Partridge) sexes are similar in color. The adults have cinnamon-colored heads, gray sides with vertical chestnut bars, and grayish to brownish backs. The two central pairs of tail feathers are heavily barred, while the outer tail feathers are rusty-brown. Both sexes may have a chestnut-brown horseshoe design on the breast, although it is more common in males. Gray Partridge usually flush in coveys of 10 to 15 birds, and the rufous tail feathers are conspicuous on birds in flight. Adult males and females range from 12 to 13 inches in length and average about 14 ounces in weight.

Diagnostic Characteristics
Chukars, which have a limited distribution in Montana, are somewhat larger than Gray Partridges (Hungarian Partidge); they also have red bills and feet, black bars on the sides, and a light throat bordered by a prominent black necklace.

General Distribution
Montana Range



Montana Distribution


Western Hemisphere Range

 


Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations: 1877

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

Breeding
(direct evidence "B")


Breeding
(indirect evidence "b")


No evidence of Breeding
(transient "t")


Overwintering
(regular observations "W")


Overwintering
(at least one obs. "w")



 

(Records associated with a range of dates are excluded from time charts)



Habitat
Habitat consists of a mixture of cultivated and noncultivated land; grasslands interspersed with wheat fields, weed patches, and brushy cover. Optimum conditions are a cool, moderately dry climate and a mixture of cultivated and noncultivated land. Grain fields and winter wheat stubble are also used. Field edges provide escape and winter cover (Mussehl 1971).

Food Habits
Waste grain is a staple fall and winter food. Weed seeds and insects are summer food.

Ecology
Brood sizes decrease by one-third by September 1. The annual mortality rate is 75% due to adverse weather, farming operations, predation, accidents, disease, hunting, and probably pesticides. The state population has increased since the 1940's due to increased grain growing (Mussehl 1971).

Reproductive Characteristics
Fortine hatching dates are from June 25 to July 31. The average peak during the time period from 1964 to 1967 was June 19 to July 9 (Mussehl 1971). Egg laying begins in late May to early June; clutches of 12 to 18 are common (Mussehl 1971).

References
  • Additional ReferencesLegend:   View WorldCat Record   View Online Publication
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    • American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. 829 pp.
    • Anonymous. 1923. Montana introduces Hungarian partridge. California Fish and Game. 9:75-76.
    • Anonymous. 1959. Hungarian partridge. Montana Wildlife. November.
    • Carroll, John P. 1993. Gray Partridge (Perdix perdix). Species Account Number 058. The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology; Retrieved 3/25/2008 from The Birds of North America Online database
    • Ecological Consulting Service (ECON), Helena, MT., 1972, Wildlife Investigations: 10 x 20 Mile Area, Colstrip, Montana. Project 9--01--A. Annual Report to Montana Power Company and Western Energy Company; December 1972 - December 1973. December 21, 1973.
    • Ecological Consulting Service (ECON), Helena, MT., 1973, Wildlife Investigations: Areas A & B, Colstrip, Montana. Project 1--01--A. Annual Report to Montana Power Company and Western Energy Company; December 1972 - December 1973. December 21, 1973.
    • ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1975, Colstrip 10 x 20 Area wildlife and wildlife habitat annual monitoring report, 1975. Proj. 71-23-A. December 31, 1975.
    • ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1976, Colstrip 10 x 20 Area wildlife and wildlife habitat annual monitoring report, 1976. Proj. 135-85-A. December 31, 1976.
    • ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1977, Colstrip 10 x 20 Area wildlife and wildlife habitat annual monitoring report, 1977. Proj. 164-85-A. December 31, 1977.
    • ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1979, Annual wildllife report of the Colstrip Area for 1978. Proj. 195-85-A. April 6, 1979.
    • ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1979, Annual wildllife report of the Colstrip Area for 1979, including a special raptor research study. Proj. 216-85-A. March 1, 1980.
    • ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1979, Area B four-section wildlife report. August 3, 1979.
    • Econ, Inc., Helena, MT., 1991, Wildlife monitoring report: 1989 field season, Big Sky Mine. March 1991.
    • Ehrlich, P., D. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1988. The birder’s handbook: a field guide to the natural history of North American birds. Simon and Schuster Inc. New York. 785 pp.
    • Johnsgard, P. A. 1988. The quails, partridges, and francolins of the world. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. 264 pp.
    • Johnsgard, P. A. 1992. Birds of the Rocky Mountains with particular reference to national parks in the northern Rocky Mountain region. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. xi + 504 pp.
    • Land & Water Consulting, Inc., Missoula, MT., 2002, Montana Dept. of Transportation Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report, Year 2002: [Jack] Johnson - Valier, Montana. Proj. No. 130091.018. May 2003. In 2002 Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Reports, Vol. II.
    • Lenard, S., J. Carlson, J. Ellis, C. Jones, and C. Tilly. 2003. P. D. Skaar's Montana Bird Distribution, 6th Edition. Montana Audubon: Helena, MT, 144 pp.
    • Martin, Steve A., ECON, Inc., Helena, MT., 1982, Flathead Project Wildlife Report, 1981-1982. November 30, 1982.
    • Montana Bird Distribution Committee. 2012. P.D. Skaar's Montana bird distribution. 7th Edition. Montana Audubon, Helena, Montana. 208 pp. + foldout map.
    • Montana Dept. of State Lands, 1978, Preliminary environmental review for the proposed granting of an underground mining permit to Beartooth Coal Company, Incorporated, for the reopening of an underground coal mine in the area of Bearcreek, Carbon County, Montana. July 10, 1978.
    • Peabody Coal Company, Flagstaff, AZ., 1991, Wildlife monitoring report: 1990 field season, Big Sky Mine. July 1991.
    • Schladweiler, Philip, and John P. Weigand., 1983, Relationships of endrin and other chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds to wildlife in Montana, 1981-1982. September 1983.
    • Sullivan, Daniel, 1982, Bait stations as a means of rodenticide presentation to control Columbian ground squirrrels. Technical Rep. 82-3. Sept. 1982.
    • U.S. Forest Service. 1991. Forest and rangeland birds of the United States: Natural history and habitat use. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Agricultural Handbook 688. 625 pages.
    • Waage, Bruce C., 1987, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1987 Field Season. December 1987.
    • Waage, Bruce C., 1988, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1988 Field Season. December 1988.
    • Waage, Bruce C., 1991, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1990 Field Season. September 1991.
    • Waage, Bruce C., 1993, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; 1993 Field Season. April 1993.
    • Waage, Bruce C., compiler., 1984, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Rosebud County, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1983 Field Season. June 1984.
    • Waage, Bruce C., compiler., 1985, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Rosebud County, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1984 Field Season. October 1985.
    • Waage, Bruce C., compiler., 1986, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Rosebud County, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1985 Field Season. December 1986.
    • Weigand, J. P. 1971. Mercury in Hungarian partridge and in their northcentral Montana environment. Presented at Ore. St. U. Wrkshp. "Mercury in the western environment."
    • Weigand, J. P. 1973. Population characteristics of Hungarian partridge in north central Montana. State of Montana Proj. No. W-120-R-3. 34 pp.
    • Weigand, J. P. 1977. The biology and ecology of Hungarian (European Gray) partridge (PERDIX PERDIX L.) in northcentral Montana. Ph. D. Thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman. pp 388.
    • Weigand, J. P. 1980. Ecology of the Hungarian partridge in north-central Montana. Wildl. Monogr. No. 74:1-106.
    • Weigand, John P. 1974. Population characteristics of Hungarian partridge in northcentral Montana. Montana Department of Fish and Game, Helena.
    • Westech Environmental Services, Inc., 2003, Wildlife monitoring: Absaloka Mine area, 2002. April 2003
    • Western Energy Co., Colstrip, MT., 1980, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Report, 1980.
    • Western Energy Co., Colstrip, MT., 1981, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Report, 1981.
    • Western Energy Co., Colstrip, MT., 1981, Western Energy Company's Application for a Surface Mining Permit: Area C - Block 1. Vol. 1. May 1981.
    • Western Energy Co., Colstrip, MT., 1982, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Report, 1982.
    • Zackheim, Karen, 1973?, Exhibit H: Wildlife Study. In Ash Grove Cement Co. files.
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Citation for data on this website:
Gray Partridge — Perdix perdix.  Montana Field Guide.  Montana Natural Heritage Program and Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks.  Retrieved on September 2, 2014, from http://FieldGuide.mt.gov/detail_ABNLC01010.aspx
 
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