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Canvasback - Aythya valisineria

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Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S5B

Agency Status
USFWS:
USFS:
BLM:
FWP Conservation Tier: 2
PIF:

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General Description
An exclusively North American species. Gregarious and highly visible during the nonbreeding season. The Canvasback is a large diving duck. Male (51 to 56 cm/863 to 1589 g) slightly larger than female (48 to 52 cm/908 to 1543 g). Thin wedge-shaped head sloping upward from tip of long bill to back of crown and long, stout neck, head held erect. Adult male: rich chestnut red head and neck, black chest, white back and long sloping, blackish bill. Adult female: forehead, crown, nape and upper neck light brown to brownish olive; cheeks, chin and throat whitish buff; lower neck gray-brown, with reddish-brown cast. Mantle and scapulars light gray, lower back and rump grayish; belly white to grayish white; bill nearly black (Mowbray 2002).

General Distribution
Montana Range



Western Hemisphere Range

 


Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations: 1812

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

Breeding
(direct evidence "B")


Breeding
(indirect evidence "b")


No evidence of Breeding
(transient "t")


Overwintering
(regular observations "W")


Overwintering
(at least one obs. "w")



 

(Records associated with a range of dates are excluded from time charts)



Migration
Normal migration periods in the Bozeman area are from March 28 to May 20 and from September 20 to December 1, with peak numbers on April 15 and October 15.

Habitat
Breeds in small lakes, deep-water marshes, sheltered bays of large fresh water and alkali lakes, permanent and semi permanent ponds, sloughs, potholes, and shallow river impoundments. In aspen parklands and mixed-grass prairie, prefers wetlands bordered by dense emergent vegetation. In boreal forest, utilizes open marshes (Mowbray 2002).

Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
  • Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
    How Associations Were Made
    We associated the use and habitat quality (high, medium, or low) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
    1. Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2001, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
    2. Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species’ range and habitat requirements;
    3. Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point database associated with each ecological system;
    4. Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of “observations versus availability of habitat”.
    Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.  In general, species were associated as using an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.  However, species were not associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if point observations were associated with that system.  High, medium, and low habitat quality was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species in the literature.  The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignments of habitat quality.  If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact Bryce Maxell at bmaxell@mt.gov or (406) 444-3655.

    Suggested Uses and Limitations
    Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.  These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: http://mtnhp.org/requests/default.asp) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.  Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.  Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.  Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).  Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species’ known geographic range.

    Literature Cited
    • Adams, R.A.  2003.  Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation.  Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.  289 p.
    • Dobkin, D. S.  1992.  Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34.  Missoula, MT.
    • Foresman, K.R.  2001.  The wild mammals of Montana.  Special Publication No. 12.  Lawrence, KS: The American Society of Mammalogists.  278 p.
    • Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998.  Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates.  Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT.  1302 p.
    • Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young.  1999.  Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32.  72 p.
    • Maxell, B.A.  2000.  Management of Montana’s amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species.  Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1.  Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana.  161 p.
    • Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath.  2004.  Amphibians and reptiles of Montana.  Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.

Food Habits
Omnivorous. Foods vary depending upon availability. During winter and migration, mainly plants (winter buds, rhizomes, and tubers or aquatic plants). When plant food is limited, may take small clams and snails (Mowbray 2002).

Ecology
At Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge in April 1948, 5000 were seen. At Freezeout Lake, all nests in emergent vegetation were unsuccessful due to flooding.

Reproductive Characteristics
Monogamous and secretive during the breeding season. Nest is a large bulky structure. May be overtopped by vegetation and may have one or more well-maintained ramps. Eggs are elliptical to elliptical-ovate. Grayish olive or greenish drab in color. Clutch size is affected by egg parasitism. Size is widely variant (2 to 16) as a result (Mowbray 2002). The nesting period is from late May through July. Hatching at Freezeout Lake was from June 1 to July 31; hatching dates are from May 21 to June 30.

References
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Citation for data on this website:
Canvasback — Aythya valisineria.  Montana Field Guide.  Montana Natural Heritage Program and Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks.  Retrieved on April 17, 2014, from http://FieldGuide.mt.gov/detail_ABNJB11020.aspx
 
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