Golden Eagle - Aquila chrysaetos
Adults are brown overall, gold on head and neck feathers, with light brown bands in the tail. Immature birds have white patches on the wings and white at the base of the tail feathers. Golden Eagles often soar with their wings held nearly flat, but slightly upturned. The legs are heavily feathered down to the tops of the toes. Golden Eagles range in length from 33 to 38 inches, and have a wingspan of 6-1/2 to 7-1/2 feet. A very large raptor with mostly brown plumage, a golden wash on the back of the head and neck, and a mostly horn-colored bill; tail is faintly banded; immatures have white at the base of the primaries and and white tail with a dark terminal band; total length 76 to 102 cm, wingspan 203 to 224 cm.
Bald Eagles have feathers only part way down the leg, and usually soar with wings held completely flat. Immature Bald Eagles usually have a strip of white along the underside of the wing, rather than in a round patch on the flight feathers like the immature Golden Eagle. Older immature Bald Eagles have irregular patches of white on their bodies, instead of the sharply defined patterns on Golden Eagles. Turkey Vultures soar with wings held in a more pronounced "V".
Western Hemisphere Range
Breeds throughout western North America from the Arctic to central Mexico; some breeding also occurs in northern Ontario and Labrador, and on the Gaspe Peninsula of southeastern Quebec. Northern birds (north of southern British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan) move south in the non-breeding season.
Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations:
(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version)
Map Help and Descriptions
(direct evidence "B")
(indirect evidence "b")
No evidence of Breeding
(regular observations "W")
(at least one obs. "w")
(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)
Permanent resident, but migratory movements documented. Migrants were sampled in the Bridger Mountains during 13 September to 27 October (Hoffman and Smith 2003), with an average of 1534 individuals passing through this site each autumn during 1992-2001; there was a slight decline in numbers over the entore sampling period. Some Golden Eagles remain year-round, but vertical migration seen in spring and fall (Skaar 1969). One eagle banded as a nestling near Livingston was shot 1290 miles distant near Kerrville, Texas (McGahan 1968). Three Golden Eagles banded in Montana were reencountered in Montana within 2 miles of where banded six months to four years after banding (Harmata 2002). In a 1991 study of fall migration along the Bridger Range, Omland and Hoffman (1996); concluded that immature Golden Eagles migrated earlier in the season than adults; immatures also spent more time each day migrating and/or were less selective about the time of day during which they migrated than adults. Further, the authors found no evidence of visual interaction among migrating Golden Eagles.
Golden Eagles nest on cliffs and in large trees (occasionally on power poles), and hunt over prairie and open woodlands; some nest sites in the Fallon area include scoroacious badland pillars (Cameron 1905), another near Knowlton was in a ponderosa pine (Cameron 1907). In the Livingston area 62% of 92 nests were on cliffs, 29% in Douglas-fir, and 2-3% each in ponderosa pine, cottonwood, snags, and on the ground (McGahan 1968). About 70% of cliff nests were oriented to the south or east, most nests were found between 4000-6000 ft elevation, and sites were associated with sagebrush/grassland hunting areas (McGahan 1968). In the Bozeman area, Golden Eagles move from mountains to valleys in the winter (Skaar 1969).
Ecological Systems Associated with this Species
- Details on Creation and Suggested Uses and Limitations
How Associations Were Made
We associated the use and habitat quality (high, medium, or low) of each of the 82 ecological systems mapped in Montana for
vertebrate animal species that regularly breed, overwinter, or migrate through the state by:
- Using personal observations and reviewing literature that summarize the breeding, overwintering, or migratory habitat requirements of each species (Dobkin 1992, Hart et al. 1998, Hutto and Young 1999, Maxell 2000, Foresman 2001, Adams 2003, and Werner et al. 2004);
- Evaluating structural characteristics and distribution of each ecological system relative to the species’ range and habitat requirements;
- Examining the observation records for each species in the state-wide point database associated with each ecological system;
- Calculating the percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system to get a measure of “observations versus availability of habitat”.
Species that breed in Montana were only evaluated for breeding habitat use, species that only overwinter in Montana were only evaluated for overwintering habitat use, and species that only migrate through Montana were only evaluated for migratory habitat use.
In general, species were associated as using an ecological system if structural characteristics of used habitat documented in the literature were present in the ecological system or large numbers of point observations were associated with the ecological system.
However, species were not associated with an ecological system if there was no support in the literature for use of structural characteristics in an ecological system, even if
point observations were associated with that system.
High, medium, and low habitat quality was assigned based on the degree to which the structural characteristics of an ecological system matched the preferred structural habitat characteristics for each species in the literature.
The percentage of observations associated with each ecological system relative to the percent of Montana covered by each ecological system was also used to guide assignments of habitat quality.
If you have any questions or comments on species associations with ecological systems, please contact Bryce Maxell at firstname.lastname@example.org
or (406) 444-3655.
Suggested Uses and Limitations
Species associations with ecological systems should be used to generate potential lists of species that may occupy broader landscapes for the purposes of landscape-level planning.
These potential lists of species should not be used in place of documented occurrences of species (this information can be requested at: http://mtnhp.org/requests/default.asp
) or systematic surveys for species and evaluations of habitat at a local site level by trained biologists.
Users of this information should be aware that the land cover data used to generate species associations is based on imagery from the late 1990s and early 2000s and was only intended to be used at broader landscape scales.
Land cover mapping accuracy is particularly problematic when the systems occur as small patches or where the land cover types have been altered over the past decade.
Thus, particular caution should be used when using the associations in assessments of smaller areas (e.g., evaluations of public land survey sections).
Finally, although a species may be associated with a particular ecological system within its known geographic range, portions of that ecological system may occur outside of the species’ known geographic range.
- Adams, R.A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West; natural history, ecology, and conservation. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. 289 p.
- Dobkin, D. S. 1992. Neotropical migrant land birds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Publication No. R1-93-34. Missoula, MT.
- Foresman, K.R. 2001. The wild mammals of Montana. Special Publication No. 12. Lawrence, KS: The American Society of Mammalogists. 278 p.
- Hart, M.M., W.A. Williams, P.C. Thornton, K.P. McLaughlin, C.M. Tobalske, B.A. Maxell, D.P. Hendricks, C.R. Peterson, and R.L. Redmond. 1998. Montana atlas of terrestrial vertebrates. Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 1302 p.
- Hutto, R.L. and J.S. Young. 1999. Habitat relationships of landbirds in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-32. 72 p.
- Maxell, B.A. 2000. Management of Montana’s amphibians: a review of factors that may present a risk to population viability and accounts on the identification, distribution, taxonomy, habitat use, natural history, and the status and conservation of individual species. Report to U.S. Forest Service Region 1. Missoula, MT: Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana. 161 p.
- Werner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D. Flath. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles of Montana. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 262 p.
- Commonly Associated with these Ecological Systems
Forest and Woodland Systems
Shrubland, Steppe and Savanna Systems
Sparse and Barren Systems
Wetland and Riparian Systems
In Montana, Golden Eagles eat primarily jackrabbits, ground squirrels, and carrion. They occasionally prey on deer and Pronghorn (mostly fawns), waterfowl, grouse, weasels, skunks, and other animals. In the Livingstone area, diet included two species of lagomorph, seven species of rodent, two species of small carnivore (mustlids), three species of ungulates (fawns), 15 species of birds, and two species of snakes; of 980 prey items, 87% were mammals, and 80% of the mammals were lagomorphs (jackrabbits and cottontails) (McGahan 1968). In the Fallon area, jackrabbits, cottontails, wood rats, Sharp-tailed Grouse, meadowlarks, and rattlesnakes were noted at eyries (Cameron 1905), mostly prairie dogs at a nest near Knowlton (Cameron 1907), and carrion during winter. Above treeline they are thought to hunt mostly yellow-bellied marmots (Pattie and Verbeek 1966). Golden Eagles sometimes prey on livestock, especially lambs (Arnold 1954), but when they do, losses usually occur in localized areas where migrating eagles congregate. Golden Eagles can carry no more than about seven pounds while flying.
Nesting density varies year to year from 55 to 105 square miles/pair. Some cliff nest sites are used for many decades, maybe even centuries (Ellis et al. 2009). Golden Eagles move to higher elevations after leaving the nest (Baglien 1975). During a two-year study in the Livingston area, density varied from 66.3 to 74.2 square miles/pair (McGahan 1968). BBS data for Montana show non-significant annual increases of 1.0% per year during 1966-2009 and 1.7% per year for 1999-2009; survey-wide the equivalent values are non-significant increases of 0.2% per year and 1.2% per year. CBC data for Montana during the winters of 1979-80 to 2009-10 show a high total count of 124 (0.156/party hour) on 27 counts in 1999-2000, and a low total count of 30 (0.039/party hour) on 9 counts in 1980-81. The mean annual total count for the 31-year period was 79, with numbers/party hour showing a gradual increase.
Golden Eagles first breed when four to five years old. In the Bozeman area, courtship flights reported 14 February to 26 April (Skaar 1969), 25 February through March in the Knowlton area (Cameron 1907). The same pair often uses the same nest year after year; nests are sometimes over six feet in diameter. A nest on a basalt cliff near Sun River, and in use long before 1972 (when it was nearly 6 m tall), was 7 m (23 ft) tall in 2004, the tallest nest reported for any bird species; a twig from the base of the nest grew during 1414 to 1444 AD as determined by radiocarbon dating (Ellis et al. 2009). One to three eggs are laid in March or April; a nest near Knowlton in eastern Montana had 2 eggs on 1 April (Cameron 1907). Incubation lasts about 45 days. In the Livingston area, 5% of 20 clutches had a single egg, 80% 2 two eggs, and 15% three eggs (McGahan 1968). The eaglets fly in June or July when about 10 weeks old. Eggs layed early April, hatch mid-May, fledge mid-July to early August. In south-central MT, clutch average is 2.1, with circa 1.5 eaglets fledged per successful eyrie, and circa 76% of nests successful (McGahan 1966, Reynolds 1969).
Management of healthy Golden Eagle populations requires maintaining prey habitat where eagles forage. This involves sustaining native grasslands and shrub-steppe landscapes which are the prime habitats for jack rabbits. Shrub communities should be protected within 3 km of nests, which can be maintained through fire suppression and through shrub restoration. Hacking can be used to reestablish eagles where they have been eliminated in the past. Power poles can be designed and built to reduce the likelihood of electrocution. Use of scarecrows and harassment may be methods useful to protect lambs from eagles (Kochert et al. 2002).
Threats or Limiting Factors
Shooting, trapping, and ingestion of poisoned bait have been significant threats in the past (Cameron 1905), shooting and poisoning from the ingestion of lead fragments in carrion remain as threats (Harmata and Restani 1995, Kochert et al. 2002). Collisions with wind turbines and electrocutions from high voltage powerlines also continue to present significant threats. At least 28-43 eagles were killed annually by turbine blade strikes at the Altamont Pass area, California during 1994-1997, while during 1998-2003 the estimated annual mortality was 67 (Smallwood and Thelander 2008). During 1986-1996 at least 272 Golden Eagles were electrocuted in western North America (Harness and Wilson 2001, Kochert et al. 2002); 54% of 61 bird electrocutions reported in Montana during 1980 to 1985 were Golden Eagles (O'Neil 1988).
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View WorldCat Record View Online Publication
- Arnold, L.W. 1954. The golden eagle and its economic status. Circular 27:1-35.
- Baglien, J. W. 1975. Biology and habitat requirements of the nesting golden eagle in southwestern Montana. M.S. thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman.
- Cameron, E. S. 1905. Nesting of the golden eagle in Montana. Auk 22:158-167.
- Cameron, E. S. 1907. The birds of Custer and Dawson Counties, Montana. Auk 24(3):241-271.
- Ellis D.H., T. Craig, E. Craig, S. Postupalsky et al. 2009. Unusual raptor nests around the world. Journal of Raptor Research 43(3): 175-198.
- Harmata A. and M. Restani. 1995. Environmental contaminants and cholinesterase in blood of vernal migrant bald and golden eagles in Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 1:1-15.
- Harmata, A.R. 2002. Encounters of golden eagles banded in the Rocky Mountain West. Journal of Field Ornithology 73(1):23-32.
- Harness, R.E. and R.W. Kenneth. 2001. Electric-utility structures associated with raptor electrocutions in rural areas. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(2): 612-623.
- Hoffman, S.W. and J.P. Smith. 2003. Population trends of migratory raptors in Western North America, 1977-2001. The Condor 105(3): 397-419.
- Kochert, M. N., K. Steenhof, C. L. Mcintyre, and E. H. Craig. 2002. Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). The Birds of North America Online, Species Account 684. Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY.
- McGahan, J. 1966. Ecology of the golden eagle. M.S. thesis. University of Montana, Missoula. 78 pp.
- McGahan, J. 1968. Ecology of the golden eagle. Auk 85:1-12.
- O'Neil, T. A. 1988. Analysis of bird electrocutions in Montana. Journal of Raptor Research 22:27-28.
- Omland, K. S. and S. W. Hoffman. 1996. Seasonal, diet, and spatial dispersion patterns of golden eagle autumn migration in southwestern Montana. The Condor 98:633-636.
- Pattie, D.L. and N.A.M. Verbeek. 1966. Alpine birds of the Beartooth Mountains. Condor 68: 167-176.
- Reynolds, H. U., III. 1969. Population status of the golden eagle in southcentral Montana. M.S. thesis. University of Montana, Missoula. 93 pp.
- Skaar, P.D. 1969. Birds of the Bozeman latilong: a compilation of data concerning the birds which occur between 45 and 46 N. latitude and 111 and 112 W. longitude, with current lists for Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, impinging Montana counties and Yellowstone National Park. Bozeman, MT. 132 p.
- Smallwood, K. and C. Thelander. 2008. Bird mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California. The Journal of Wildlife Management 72(1): 215-223.
- Additional ReferencesLegend: View WorldCat Record View Online Publication
Do you know of a citation we're missing?
- Allen, G. T. 1979. An assessment of potential conflicts between nesting raptors and human activities in the Long Pines area of southeastern Montana with special emphasis on uranium development. M.S. thesis, Washington State University, Pullman. 109 pp.
- Allen, G. T. 1987. Estimating prairie falcon and golden eagle nesting populations in North Dakota. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 51(4):711-715.
- American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. 829 pp.
- Becker, Dale M., 1980, A Survey of raptors on national forest land in Carter County, Montana. Final Progress Report: 1977-1979.
- Beecham, J. J., and M. N. Kochert. 1975. Breeding biology of the golden eagle in southwestern Idaho. Wilson Bulletin 87:506-513.
- Cameron, E. S. 1908. Observations on the golden eagle in Montana. Auk 25:251-268.
- Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc., 1990, Stillwater Chromite Project Baseline Data Report: Hydrology and Wildlife Monitoring, Hydrology - November 1988 through November 1989, Wildlife - November 1988 through February 1990. June 30, 1990
- Casebeer, R. L., M. J. Rognrud and S. M. Brandberg. 1950. Rocky Mountain goats in Montana. Montana Fish and Game Comm., Wildl. Rest. Div. Bull. No.5. 107 pp.
- Craighead, D. 1980. Male-female differences in the incubation behavior and fostering behavior of a captive pair of golden eagles (Aguila chrypaetos). M.S. thesis, University of Montana, Missoula.
- Dobkin, D. S. 1992. Neotropical migrant landbirds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. N. Region Publ. R1-93-34. Missoula, Mont.
- Dobkin, D.S. 1994. Conservation and management of neotropical migrant landbirds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. Univ. Idaho Press, Moscow, Idaho. 220 pp.
- ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1975, Colstrip 10 x 20 Area wildlife and wildlife habitat annual monitoring report, 1975. Proj. 71-23-A. December 31, 1975.
- ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1976, Colstrip 10 x 20 Area wildlife and wildlife habitat annual monitoring report, 1976. Proj. 135-85-A. December 31, 1976.
- ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1977, Colstrip 10 x 20 Area wildlife and wildlife habitat annual monitoring report, 1977. Proj. 164-85-A. December 31, 1977.
- ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1979, Annual wildllife report of the Colstrip Area for 1978. Proj. 195-85-A. April 6, 1979.
- ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1979, Annual wildllife report of the Colstrip Area for 1979, including a special raptor research study. Proj. 216-85-A. March 1, 1980.
- ECON, Inc. (Ecological Consulting Service), Helena, MT., 1979, Area B four-section wildlife report. August 3, 1979.
- Econ, Inc., Helena, MT., 1978, Peabody Coal Company Big Sky Mine, Rosebud County, MT. Wildlife and wildlife habitat monitoring study. Proj. 190-85-A. December 31, 1978.
- Econ, Inc., Helena, MT., 1989, Wildlife monitoring report, 1988 field season, Big Sky Mine. March 1989.
- Ehrlich, P., D. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1988. The birder’s handbook: a field guide to the natural history of North American birds. Simon and Schuster Inc. New York. 785 pp.
- Elliott, Joe C. and Hydrometrics, Inc., Helena, MT., 1994, Supplement to wildlife baseline investigation life-of-mine expansion plan: Regal Mine, Barretts Minerals, Inc., Madison County, Montana. August 2000. In Life-of Mine Expansion Plan: Barretts Minerals, Inc., Regal Mine, Madison County, Montana. Vol. 2. App. C: Baseline Wildlife Reconnaissance. December 1999.
- Ellis, D. H. 1973. Behavior of the golden eagle: an ontogenic study. Ph.D dissertation. University of Montana, Missoula. 416 pp.
- Eng, R.L., and R.J. Mackie, 1996, Supplemental wildlife data collection: McDonald Gold Project.
- Gorman, J. D., 1984, Interagency Rocky Mountain Front Wildlife Monitoring/Evaluation Program.
- Graham, Dean, and Craig Swick., 1977, A Field evaluation of the cyclone seeder for reducing Richardson ground squirrel populations causing damage in central Montana . August 1977.
- Hendricks, P., and K. H. Dueholm. 1995. Cliff-nesting raptor survey of the Sioux District, Custer National Forest: 1994. Unpubl. report to U.S.D.A. For. Serv., Custer N.F., Billings. 20 pp.
- Humphris, Michael., 1990, Wildlife Monitoring Report. Spring Creek Coal Company 1990 Mining Annual Report. Appendix I. April 11, 1990.
- Johnsgard, P. A. 1992. Birds of the Rocky Mountains with particular reference to national parks in the northern Rocky Mountain region. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. xi + 504 pp.
- Lehman, B. No date. Golden Eagle aging key. USDI National Biological Service, Raptor Research & Technical Assistance Center. Boise, ID.
- Lenard, S., J. Carlson, J. Ellis, C. Jones, and C. Tilly. 2003. P. D. Skaar's Montana Bird Distribution, 6th Edition. Montana Audubon: Helena, MT, 144 pp.
- Lockhart, J. Michael, 1976, Effects of coal extraction and related development on wildlife populations. Annual progress report; Calendar year 1976. In Decker Coal Company West Pit Permit. Vol. 3. 26.4.304(10-11), 305, 306, and 307. Updated Rules Rewrite, July 1, 1991. Appendix F.
- Lockhart, J. Michael, and Terrence P. McEneaney, 1978, Effects of coal extraction and related development on wildlife populations. Annual progress report; Calendar year 1978. In Decker Coal Company West Pit Permit. Vol. 3. 26.4.304(10-11), 305, 306, and 307. Updated Rules Rewrite, July 1, 1991. Appendix F.
- Lockhart, J. Michael, Terrence P. McEneaney, and Albert L. Harting, Jr., 1977, Effects of coal extraction and related development on wildlife populations. Annual progress report; Calendar year 1977. In Decker Coal Company West Pit Permit. Vol. 3. 26.4.304(10-11), 305, 306, and 307. Updated Rules Rewrite, July 1, 1991. Appendix F.
- McGahan, J. 1967. Quantified estimates of predation by a golden eagle population. J. Wildl. Manage. 31: 469-471.
- Menkens, G. E., Jr., and S. H. Anderson. 1987. Nest site characteristics of a predominantly tree-nesting population of Golden Eagles. J. Field Omithol. 58:22-25.
- Montana Bird Distribution Committee. 2012. P.D. Skaar's Montana bird distribution. 7th Edition. Montana Audubon, Helena, Montana. 208 pp. + foldout map.
- Montana Dept. of State Lands, 1976, Draft environmental impact statement for proposed open cut mining contract for Amercan Colloid Company. November 12, 1976.
- Montana Dept. of State Lands. U.S. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement., 1988, Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Peabody Coal Company's Big Sky Area B Mine, Rosebud County, Montana; July 1988.
- Montana Prairie Dog Working Group. 2002. Conservation plan for black-tailed and white-tailed prairie dogs in Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Helena MT. 51 pp.
- Olendorff, Richard R., and Robert N. Lehman, USDI Bureau of Land Management., 1986, Raptor collisions with utility lines: An Analysis using subjective field observations. Final Report. February 1986.
- Phillips, R.L. and A.E. Beske. 1990. Distribution and abundance of Golden Eagles and other raptors in Campbell and Converse Counties, Wyoming. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Fish Wildl. Tech. Rep. 27. 31 pp.
- Phillips, R.L., A.H. Wheeler, N.C. Forrester, J.M. Lockhart, and T.P. McEneaney. 1990. Nesting ecology of golden eagles and other raptors in southeastern Montana and northern Wyoming. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Tech. Rep. 26:1-13.
- Powder River Eagle Studies, Gillette, WY., 1992, Big Sky Mine 1991 wildlife monitoring studies. Rev. February 1992.
- Powder River Eagle Studies, Inc., Gillette, WY., 1995, Spring Creek Mine 1994 Wildlife Monitoring Studies. 4/94 to 4/95. Spring Creek Coal Company 1995 Mining Annual Report. Appendix I. May 1995.
- Powder River Eagle Studies, Inc., Gillette, WY., 1999, Spring Creek Mine 1998 Wildlife Monitoring. March 1999.
- Powder River Eagle Studies, Inc., Gillette, WY., 2000, Spring Creek Mine 1999 Wildlife Monitoring. March 2000.
- Pozen, N. F. 1978. Golden eagle nests and behavior in Glacier National Park, Montana. Unpubl. Rep., Biology Dept., Saint Mary's College, Winona, MN. 31 pp.
- Roy F. Weston, Inc., Bozeman, MT., and Western Technology and Engineering, Inc., Helena, MT., 1989, Stillwater PGM Resources East Boulder Project Addendum F: Supplemental Biological Studies. Final Report. December 1989.
- Sharp, W.M. 1951. Observations on predator-prey relations between wild ducks, trumpeter swans, and golden eagles. J. Wildl. Manage. 15:224-226.
- Snow, C, 1973. Habitat Management Series for unique or endangered species, Report No. 7: Golden Eagle. Bureau of Land Manage. and the U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Technical Note, T-N-239. 52 pp.
- Stewart, R.E. 1975. Breeding birds of North Dakota. Tri-College Center for Environmental Studies, Fargo, North Dakota. 295 pp.
- Suter, G. W., II and J. L. Joness. 1981. Criteria for Golden Eagle, Ferruginous Hawk, and Prairie Falcon nest site protection. Raptor Res. 15:12-18.
- Thomas, J. W. (ed). 1979. Wildlife habitats in managed forests: the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. Agriculture Handbook 553, USDA, Forest Service, Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, DC. 512 pp.
- U.S. Forest Service. 1991. Forest and rangeland birds of the United States: Natural history and habitat use. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Agricultural Handbook 688. 625 pages.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1987, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1987 Field Season. December 1987.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1988, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1988 Field Season. December 1988.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1989, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1989 Field Season. December 1989.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1991, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1990 Field Season. September 1991.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1992, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1991 Field Season. December 1992.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1993, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; 1992 Field Season. December 1993.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1993, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; 1993 Field Season. April 1993.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1995, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana:1994 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 1993 - November 30, 1994. February 27, 1995.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1998, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: 1997 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 1996 - November 30, 1997 Survey Period. March 23, 1998.
- Waage, Bruce C., 1999, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: 1998 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 1997 - November 30, 1998 Survey Period. February 24, 1999.
- Waage, Bruce C., 2002, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana. 2001 Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report; December 1, 2000 - November 30, 2001. Febr. 26, 2002.
- Waage, Bruce C., compiler., 1984, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Rosebud County, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1983 Field Season. June 1984.
- Waage, Bruce C., compiler., 1985, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Rosebud County, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1984 Field Season. October 1985.
- Waage, Bruce C., compiler., 1986, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Rosebud County, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1985 Field Season. December 1986.
- Waage, Bruce C., compiler., 1986, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Rosebud County, Montana: Annual Wildlife Monitoring Report, 1986 Field Season. December 1986.
- Western Energy Co., Colstrip, MT. Unpub., 1983, Western Energy Company's Application for Amendment to Surface Mining Permit NO. 8003, Area B: sections 7, 8, 17,18 T1N R41E, sections 12, 13 T1N R40E, Mining Expansion. March 1983.
- Western Energy Co., Colstrip, MT., 1980, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Report, 1980.
- Western Energy Co., Colstrip, MT., 1981, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Report, 1981.
- Western Energy Co., Colstrip, MT., 1982, Western Energy Company Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, Montana: Annual Wildlife Report, 1982.
- Western Technology and Eng., Inc., 1991, Wildlife resources of the Little Rocky Mountains Environmental Study Area. March 1991. In Application for Amendment to Operating Permit No. 00096, Zortman Mining, Inc., Phillips County, Montana. Vol. 3. Jan. 3, 1995.
- Western Technology and Eng., Inc., Helena, MT., 1996, Terrestrial Wildlife Reconnaissance: Stillwater Mining Company Hertzler Tailings Facility and Tailings Line, 1996. October 1996. In Stillwater Mining Co. Mine Waste Management Plan Amendment to Permit #00118 Supplemental Baseline Reports: Terrestrial Wildlife, Vegetation, Soils, Land Application Disposal, Waters of the U.S. January 1997.
- Western Technology and Engineering, Inc., Helena, MT., 1989, Reconnaissance of the wildlife resources in the vicinity of the Kendall Venture Mine. January 1989. In Kendall Venture North Moccasin Project: Amendment to Operating Permit 00122, Fergus County, Montana. Vol. 2, App. A, Feb., 1989.
- Westmoreland Resources, Inc., Hardin, MT., 1981, 1981 Wildlife Report. April 1982.
- Westmoreland Resources, Inc., Hardin, MT., 1983, 1980 Wildlife Monitoring Report. 12/21/79-12/20-80.
- Westmoreland Resources, Inc., Hardin, MT., 1983, 1983 Wildlife Monitoring.
- Woodgerd, W. 1952. Food habits of the golden eagle. J. Wild. Mgmt. 16(4):457-59.
- Zackheim, Karen, 1973?, Exhibit H: Wildlife Study. In Ash Grove Cement Co. files.