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Montana Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Coral Hairstreak - Satyrium titus


Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S5

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General Description
[From Ferris and Brown 1981; Scott 1986; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001; Pyle 2002] Forewing 1.3-1.7 cm. Tailless, but with tail stub. Uppersurface brown, male with paler sex patch on forewing. Undersurface brown, hindwing with marginal row of coral red spots capped inwardly with white-edged black line, postmedian row of black spots and dashes circled with white, lacks blue patch near base of tail stub.

Phenology
One flight; late May to early July southward, mid-July to August northward and at high elevation (Scott 1986). June to August but mainly July to early August (Glassberg 2001). late June to mid-August in Colorado (Scott and Scott 1978), late June through August in Oregon (Warren 2005), late May to early September in Oregon and Washington (Pyle 2002), late may to early September in British Columbia (Guppy and Shepard 2001).

Diagnostic Characteristics
Best determined by undersurface brown, hindwing with marginal row of coral red spots capped inwardly with white-edged black line, postmedian row of black spots and dashes circled with white, lacks blue patch near base of tail stub.

Species Range
Montana Range

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Range Comments
Across southern Canada from British Columbia to Quebec, south in the west to northeastern California, southern New Mexico, northeastern Texas and Oklahoma, and south in the east throughout the eastern US to northern Alabama, Mississippi, and Georgia (Scott 1986; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001); 1310 m to 2896 m elevation in Colorado (Brown 1957; Scott and Scott 1978; Ferris and Brown 1981), 457 m to 2134 m elevation in Oregon (Warren 2005). In Montana, reported from most counties across the state (Kohler 1980; Stanford and Opler 1993). Uncommon to common east of the continental divide, locally rare west of the divide (Glassberg 2001).

Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations: 1

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Relative Density

Recency

 

(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)



Migration
Non-migratory.

Habitat
Open foothills, shrubby and wooded areas, canyons, edges, trail sides, creek shores, hedgerows, usually near water (Scott 1986; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001; Pyle 2002). In Montana, reported from edges between forest and meadow openings (Debinski 1993); reported from scree slopes in Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (Debinski and Pritchard 2002).

Food Habits
Larval food plants include Amelanchier, several species of Prunus (the primary host), and Rosa (Scott 1986, 1992; Pyle 2002; James and Nunnallee 2011). Adults feed on flower nectar (including Apocynum, Asclepias, Ceanothus, Chrysothamnus, Cirsium, Clematis, Cleome, Cryptantha, Eriogonum, Geranium, Heterotheca, Lupinus, Melilotus, Monarda, Opuntia, Prunus, Pycnanthemum, Rhus, Rudbeckia, Senecio, Solidago, Symphoricarpos, Symphyotrichum) and mud (Tooker et al. 2002; Pyle 2002; Scott 2014).

Reproductive Characteristics
Females lay eggs singly on host plant twigs or crevices and glued in place, also laid in litter at base of host plant (Scott 1986, 1992, 2006). Eggs hatch about 4-5 days after overwintering (depending on temperature), L1 instar developes to L4 instar and pupa in 23 days, adults eclose (emerge from pupae) in about 22 days (James and Nunnallee 2011). Eggs hibernate, larvae nocturnal, build no nest, feed on host leaves and fruits, rest at base of host plant during day, attended by ants (including Formica pilicornis), pupate under debris at base of host plant (Scott 1979, 1986; James and Nunnallee 2011). Males perch on hilltop shrubs or trees during mid-day to await passing females, may mate on larval host plant (Scott 1975b, 1986).

References
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Citation for data on this website:
Coral Hairstreak — Satyrium titus.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from