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Montana Field Guide

Montana Field Guides

Pine White - Neophasia menapia

Native Species

Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S5

Agency Status
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General Description
[From Ferris and Brown 1981; Scott 1986; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001; Pyle 2002] Forewing 2.3-3.0 cm. Base color white. Uppersurface (and lower surface) of forewing costa lined in black from wing base to cell and curving around to form a black cell end-bar, apical area of wing extensively black containing a series of submarginal pale spots; black chain-like pattern on hindwing trailing edge. Undersurface of male hindwing with veins lined narrowly in black; veins of female more heavily marked in black, orange-red edging present, with a submarginal black stripe. Flight weak and floating.

Phenology
One flight, mainly late July to early September (Scott 1986). July to early September (Glassberg 2001). Mid-July to early September in Rocky Mountain states (Ferris and Brown 1981), mid-July to early September in southcentral Colorado (Emmel 1964; Scott and Scott 1978), late June to early October in Oregon and Washington (Pyle 2002), mid-July to mid-October in Oregon (Warren 2005), mid-July to late September in British Columbia (Threatful 1988; Guppy and Shepard 2001).

Diagnostic Characteristics
Best determined by combination of white base color, forewing costa lined in black from wing base to cell and curving around to form a black cell end-bar, apical area of wing extensively black containing a series of submarginal pale spots; undersurface of hindwing in males with thin black lines marking veins, females with heavy black markings on veins and orange-red edging present; flight of both sexes weak and floating.

Species Range
Montana Range

Year-round
 


Range Comments
Southern British Columbia and southwest Alberta south throughout western US to southern California, southeastern Arizona, southern New Mexico, east to Black Hills of South Dakota and adjacent pine forests of western Nebraska (Scott 1986; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001; Guppy and Shepard 2001); 1615 m to 3353 m elevation in Colorado (Brown 1957; Scott and Scott 1978), sea level to 2438 m elevation in Oregon (Warren 2005), 518 m to 2042 m elevation in British Columbia (Threatful 1988; Guppy and Shepard 2001). In Montana, reported from at least 23 counties (Kohler 1980; Stanford and Opler 1993; FLMNH Lepidopterists' Society database), mostly in the western 1/2 of state but in the eastern 1/2 where pine forest present (although so far documented only as far southeast as Big Horn County), to at least 2316 m elevation. Common to abundant (Glassberg 2001).

Observations in Montana Natural Heritage Program Database
Number of Observations: 9

(Click on the following maps and charts to see full sized version) Map Help and Descriptions
Relative Density

Recency

 

(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)



Migration
Non-migratory. Experience occasional population explosions and appear beyond normal range within localized areas (Guppy and Shepard 2001; Pyle 2002; Warren 2005; James and Nunnallee 2011).

Habitat
Pine forest, mixed conifer forest, forest edges, urban neighborhoods with conifers (Emmel 1964; Scott and Scott 1978; Ferris and Brown 1981; Scott 1986; Threatful 1988; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001; Pyle 2002). In Glacier National Park, Montana reported from woodlands (Debinski 1993); in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem reported from pine and fir forests (Debinski and Pritchard 2002).

Food Habits
Larval food plants various species of conifers, including Abies (multiple species), Cedrus, Picea, Pinus (several species, but especially P. ponderosa), Pseudotsuga, and Tsuga (Ferris and Brown 1981; Scott 1986, 1992, 2006; Guppy and Shepard 2001; Pyle 2002). Adults feed on flower nectar, including Achillea, Anaphalis, Berteroa, Carduus, Centaurea, Cirsium, Cleome, Erigeron, Grindelia, Heterotheca, Jacobaea, Leontodon, Lepidium, Lobelia, Machaeranthera, Raphanus, Rudbeckia, Senecio, Solidago, Symphyothrichum, and Tanacetum (Pyle 2002; Scott 2014).

Reproductive Characteristics
Females lay eggs in a single row of 3-22 eggs on host plant leaf (needle) near top of tree (Scott 1986). Eggs hatch in about 14-16 days after overwintering and exposure to warming spring temperatures. Develop from L1 instar to L5 instar and pupae in about 63 days, pupation occurs on lower branches of host plant or on ground and adjacent shrubs. L1 and L2 instars gregarious, L3 to L5 instars generally solitary. Eggs overwinter, larvae fed on needles, build no nest (Scott 1979, 1986; Guppy and Shepard 2001; James and Nunnallee 2011). Females often rest in upper conifer canopy, males patrol slowly around host trees throughout the day in search of females (Scott 1975b, 1986; Guppy and Shepard 2001).

References
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Citation for data on this website:
Pine White — Neophasia menapia.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from