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Montana Field Guides

Clodius Parnassian - Parnassius clodius


Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S3S4

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General Description
[From Ferris and Brown 1981; Scott 1986; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001; Pyle 2002] Forewing 3.0-3.5 cm. Antennae solid black. Uppersurface of forewing border strong black, black bar within forewing cell rectangular and crossing entire cell, milky to smoky white (translucent especially at forewing margins); hindwing with two round red hindwing spots, none on forewing. Undersurface similar to uppersurface, female showing more red along inner edge of hindwing.

Phenology
One fight; mostly late June to mid-July, May in southeastern Washington (Scott 1986). May to mid-September (Glassberg 2001). Mid-June to mid-July in Wyoming (Auckland et al. 2004), July at high elevation in northern California (Shapiro 1977), early May to mid-September in Oregon and Washington (Pyle 2002; Warren 2005), late May to early August in British Columbia (Guppy and Shepard 2001).

Diagnostic Characteristics
Best determined by a combination of solid black antennae, uppersurface of forewing with strong black border, milky to smoky white (translucent especially at forewing margins), black bar within forewing cell rectangular and crossing entire cell; hindwing with two round reddish spots (none on forewing). Undersurface similar to uppersurface.

Species Range
Montana Range

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Range Comments
Southern British Columbia east to Alberta, western Montana, western Wyoming, south to central California, southern Idaho, central Utah (Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001; Guppy and Shepard 2001); to at least 2743 m elevation in northern California (Shapiro 1977), sea level to 2134 m elevation in Washington and Oregon (Pyle 2002), 549 m to 2438 m elevation in Oregon (Warren 2005). In Montana, reported from at least 17 counties in western Montana, east to Carbon County (Kohler 1978, 1980; Stanford and Opler 1993; FLMNH Lepidopterists' Society database), to at least 2641 m elevation. Common to abundant (Glassberg 2001).

Summary of Observations Submitted for Montana
Number of Observations: 1

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Relative Density

Recency

 

(Observations spanning multiple months or years are excluded from time charts)



Migration
Non-migratory. Average straight-line distance traveled/day about 200 m (Auckland et al. 2004).

Habitat
Forest meadows and openings, roadsides, riparian canyons, subalpine edges and chutes, above treeline in alpine terrain (Shapiro 1977; Ferris and Brown 1981; Scott 1986; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001; Pyle 2002). In Glacier National Park, Montana reported from above treeline in alpine terrain (Debinski 1993); in Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, reported from dry montane meadows (Debinski and Pritchard 2002; Debinski et al. 2013).

Food Habits
Larval food plants include multiple species of Dicentra, possibly Corydalis (McCorkle and Hammond 1985; Scott 1986; Guppy and Shepard 2002; Pyle 2002; Warren 2005; James and Nunnallee 2011). Adults feed on flower nectar, including Achillea, Anaphalis, Apocynum, Caltha, Calyptridium, Epilobium, Eriogonum, Leontodon, Lilium, Montia, Parnassia, Rubus, Sencio, Symphyotrichum, and Trifolium (Pyle 2002; Auckland et al. 2004; Scott 2014).

Reproductive Characteristics
Females lay eggs singly, scattered haphazardly on and near host plant (McCorkle and Hammond 1985; Scott 1986; Guppy and Shepard 2001; James and Nunnallee 2011). Eggs contain fully developed larvae about 30 days after laying, eggs overwinter for several months, possibly overwinter as L1 or L2 instar or pupae (Scott 1979, 1986; McCorkle and Hammond 1985; Guppy and Shepard 2001; James and Nunnallee 2011). Eggs hatch in 1-4 days once exposed to warmer (spring) temperatures, develop from L1 instar to L5 instar and pupae 18-19 days. Larvae nocturnal (rest on curled leaves on ground during day), feed on host plant leaves, build no nest. Pupate in light silken cocoon near base of host plant but above ground (James and Nunnallee 2011). Males patrol throughout day near host plants on hillsides and in meadows in search of females, which they overpower in midair and force to the ground for mating (Scott 1975; McCorkle and Hammond 1985; James and Nunnallee 2011).

References
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Citation for data on this website:
Clodius Parnassian — Parnassius clodius.  Montana Field Guide.  .  Retrieved on , from