Hobomok Skipper - Poanes hobomok
[From Ferris and Brown 1981; Scott 1986; Layberry et al. 1998; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001] Forewing 1.4-1.6 cm. Forewings rounded. Uppersurface of male yellow-orange with irregular black borders, lacks stigma; female in two forms:(1) similar to male but orange duller and less extensive (most common), (2) purple-black with a few clouded white spots on forewing (Pocahontas form). Undersurface of males and most females with extensive brown patch at hindwing base and broad brown borders enclosing yellow postmedian area; undersurface of Pocahontas hindwing purple-black, with pattern obscure.
One flight, mostly June to early July in the Rocky Mountain region and northward, late April through May in the southeastern US (Scott 1986). Mid-May to early July in the west (Glassberg 2001). Mid-May to late July in Canada (Layberry et al. 1998). Mid-May to early July in Colorado (Scott and Scott 1978; Ferris and Brown 1981), June in western Nebraska (Johnson and Nixon 1967), late May to early July in North Dakota (McCabe and Post 1976).
Best determined by a combination of uppersurface yellow-orange to orange with irregular dark-brown to black borders, male stigma absent, undersurface of hindwing with extensive brown patch at hindwing base and broad brown borders enclosing yellow postmedian area; undersurface of female Pocahontas hindwing purple-black, with pattern obscure.
Mainly east-central Alberta east through southern Canada to Nova Scotia, south to eastern Wyoming, central Kansas, eastern Oklahoma, northern Georgia; isolated population in central Colorado to central New Mexico (Scott 1986; Layberry et al. 1998; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2001); 1829 m to 2400 m in Colorado (Scott and Scott 1978; Ferris and Brown 1981). In Montana, reported (first in 2002) from at least 13 counties in the eastern 1/2 of the state near the eastern and southern borders, as far west as Carbon County (Kohler 1980; Stanford and Opler 1993; FLMNH Lepidopterists' Society database); below 1220 m elevation. Uncommon (Glassberg 2001).
Woodland openings and edges, dense oak-ponderosa pine-Poa woodland, bog edges, streamside and trail openings, city parks (Scott and Scott 1978; Ferris and Brown 1981; Scott 1986; Layberry et al. 1998; Opler and Wright 1999; Glassberg 2011). Habitat in Montana not described but probably similar, and includes riparian woodlands and riverine parks (FLMNH Lepidopterists' Society database).
Larval food plants are grasses, including Panicum and Poa, possibly Bromus (Scott 1986, 2006; Layberry et al. 1998). Adults feed on flower nectar (including Allium, Apocynum, Arabis, Asclepias, Centaurea, Chrysanthemum, Echium, Fragaria, Geranium, Glechoma, Hedysarum, Hesperis, Hieracium, Iris, Lamium, Lathyrus, Ledum, Ligustrum, Lonicera, Lythrum, Nepeta, Phlox, Rubus, Sonchus, Symphyotrichum, Syringa, Taraxacum, Tradescantia, Trifolium, Verbena, Vicea), bird dung, and mud (Tooker et al. 2002; Scott 2014).
Limited information. Females lay eggs singly on or near host plant. Larvae feed on host plant leaves, overwinter (diapause) as egg, larva, possibly pupa (Ferris and Brown 1981; Scott 1979; 1986). Males perch throughout day 1-2 m above ground on vegetation in gullies and valley bootoms in clearings, awaiting passing females (Ferris and Brown 1981; Scott 1975b, 1986; Layberry et al. 1998).
- Literature Cited AboveLegend: View Online Publication
- Ferris, C.D. and F.M. Brown (eds). 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountains. Univ. of Oklahoma Press. Norman. 442 pp.
- Glassberg, J. 2001. Butterflies through Binoculars: A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Western North America. Oxford University Press.
- Johnson, K. and E. S. Nixon. 1967. The Rhopalocera of northwestern Nebraska. American Midland Naturalist 78:508-528.
- Kohler, S. 1980. Checklist of Montana Butterflies (Rhopalocera). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 34(1): 1-19.
- Layberry, R.A., P.W. Hall, and J.D. LaFontaine. 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press. 280 pp. + color plates.
- McCabe, T.L. and R.L. Post. 1976. North Dakota butterfly calendar (including possible strays). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 15:93-99.
- Opler, P.A. and A.B. Wright. 1999. A field guide to western butterflies. Second edition. Peterson Field Guides. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 540 pp.
- Scott, J.A. 1975b. Mate-locating behavior of western North American butterflies. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 14:1-40.
- Scott, J.A. 1979. Hibernal diapause of North American Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 18(3): 171-200.
- Scott, J.A. 1986. The butterflies of North America: a natural history and field guide. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.
- Scott, J.A. 2006. Butterfly hostplant records, 1992-2005, with a treatise on the evolution of Erynnis, and a note on new terminology for mate-locating behavior. Papilio new series #14. 74 p.
- Scott, J.A. 2014. Lepidoptera of North America 13. Flower visitation by Colorado butterflies (40,615 records) with a review of the literature on pollination of Colorado plants and butterfly attraction (Lepidoptera: Hersperioidea and Papilionoidea). Contributions of the C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthopod Diversity. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University. 190 p.
- Scott, J.A. and G.R. Scott. 1978. Ecology and distribution of the butterflies of southern central Colorado. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 17(2): 73-128.
- Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of western USA butterflies: including adjacent parts of Canada and Mexico. Unpubl. Report. Denver and Fort Collins, Colorado 275 pp.
- Tooker, J.F., P.F. Reagel, and L.M. Hanks. 2002. Nectar sources of day-flying lepidoptera of central Illinois. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95(1): 84-96.
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