The Black-legged Kittiwake breeds on the subarctic and Arctic coasts and islands of Alaska and in eastern North America in the Canadian High Arctic, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Newfoundland (Hatch et al. 2009). In Montana, this species has no records in the past decade but does have a few historic observations (Montana Bird Distribution Committee 2012).
For a comprehensive review of the conservation status, habitat use, and ecology of this and other Montana bird species, please see Marks et al. 2016, Birds of Montana.
The species generally migrates only in coastal areas, both the Atlantic and Pacific.